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Blackjack insurance and surrender. Award winning casino practice software tools for beatable games: Blackjack card counting & shuffle tracking. The major aim in the construction of these tools is the accurate simulation of play in a casino


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How to take insurance when playing blackjack

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The insurance is in case the dealer receives a blackjack, and you put out half of your original bet as the insurance. Assuming the dealer does have a blackjack, you win 2-1 on your insurance wager. To illustrate how this works, let’s say that you make a $10 bet, and the dealer shows an ace.


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Blackjack Insurance – A Bad Bet | Blackjack Life
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Rules I overhear a lot of bad gambling advice in the casinos.
Perhaps the most frequent is this one, "The object of blackjack is to get as close to 21 as possible, without going over.
The object of is to beat the dealer.
To beat the dealer the player must first not bust go over 21 and second either outscore the dealer or have the dealer bust.
Here are the full rules of the game.
Except, a "blackjack" is the highest hand, consisting of an ace and any 10-point card, and it outranks all other 21-point hands.
One of the dealer cards is dealt face up.
The facedown card is called the "hole card.
Insurance wagers are optional and may not exceed half the original wager.
If he does, then he will turn it over immediately.
The dealer will resolve insurance blackjack insurance at this time.
If this card causes the player's total points to exceed 21 known as "breaking" or "busting" then he loses.
The dealer will automatically give each card a second card.
Then, the player may hit, stand, or double normally.
However, when splitting aces, each ace gets only one card.
Sometimes doubling after this web page is not allowed.
If the player gets a ten and ace after splitting, then it counts as 21 points, not a blackjack.
Usually the player may keep re-splitting up to a total of four hands.
Sometimes re-splitting aces is not allowed.
This option is only available on the initial two cards, and depending on casino rules, sometimes it is not allowed at all.
If the dealer has 16 or less, then he will draw another card.
A special situation is when the dealer has an ace and any number of cards totaling six points known as a "soft 17".
At some tables, the dealer will also hit a soft 17.
Some casinos have been short-paying blackjacks, which is a rule strongly in the casino's favor.
Wizard's Simple Strategy I've been preaching for years that to play blackjack properly requires memorizing the basic strategy.
However, after pitching the basic strategy for 20 years, I've learned that few people have the will to memorize it.
In my book,I presented a "Simple Strategy," which is seven simple rules to playing blackjack.
The cost due to incorrect plays with the Simple Strategy is 0.
Ever since my book was published it has bothered me that the cost in errors to my Simple Strategy was too high.
So in September 2009 I developed the following "Wizard's Strategy.
That is the cost of one hand for about every 12 hours of play.
Compared to the 250 cells continue reading the Basic Strategy, the Wizard's Strategy has only 21, as follows.
Let me be perfectly clear that this strategy is not right 100% of the time.
I continue to get Emails saying that when this strategy was used with mythe player was corrected for following it.
For example, my simple strategy says to stand on 12 against a 2, when it is mathematically better to hit.
If you want to learn a strategy that is correct all the time you should use the appropriate for the set of rules you are playing.
A "soft" hand is one with at least one ace, which may still count as one or eleven points.
Specifically, double with 10 against a 2 to 9, and with 11 against 2 to 10.
A reader named Click the following article provided of my simple strategy, with exceptions in small print.
Details about the Wizard's Simple Strategy can be found in my.
Basic Strategy For the appropriate basic strategy for blackjack insurance about any set of rules, please visit my.
A special feature is that it tells you when you make a mistake in basic strategy.
Choose from various numbers of decks and rule variations.
See my to determine the house edge under 6,912 possible rule combinations.
Rule Surveys Las Vegas: I'm proud to feature up date blackjack rules for every casino in Las Vegas.
The list blackjack insurance learn more here monthly, based on Stanford Wong's Current Blackjack Newsletter.
Effective November 2009 the survey has been moved to my companion site.
Rule Variations Following is a list of some common rule variations and the effect on the player's expected return compared to standard U.
Rule Effect Single deck 0.
Beware Short Pays on a Blackjack More and more tables are showing up that pay less than the full 3 to 2 on a blackjack.
Most of these tables pay 6 to 5, but some even money and 7 to 5 tables are known to exist.
I would estimate that 10% of "21" tables in Las Vegas now pay less than 3 to 2.
In my opinion, only games that pay 3 to 2 deserve to be called "blackjack," the rest fall under "21" games, including Super Fun 21 and Spanish 21.
Regardless of the other rules, click at this page should demand nothing less than 3 to 2 blackjack.
You should always check the felt to be sure, and if the felt doesn't say, look for a sign.
If nothing says the win on a blackjack, then ask.
Bad Strategies Three popular bad strategies encountered at the blackjack table are: never bust, mimic the dealer, and always assume the dealer has a ten blackjack insurance the hole.
All three are very bad strategies.
Following are my specific comments on each of blackjack insurance, including the house edge under Atlantic City rules dealer https://us-park.info/blackjack/blackjack-bonus-games.html on soft 17, split up to 4 hands, double after split, double any two cards of 0.
Never bust: For my analysis of this strategy I assumed the player would never hit a hard 12 or more.
All other decisions were according to correct basic strategy.
This "never bust" strategy results in a house edge of 3.
Mimic the dealer: For my analysis of this strategy I assumed the player would always hit 16 or less and stand on17 or more, including a soft 17.
The player never doubled or split, since the dealer is not allowed to do so.
This "mimic the dealer" strategy results in a house edge of 5.
Assume a ten in the hole: For this strategy I first figured out the optimal basic strategy under this assumption.
If the dealer had an ace up, then I reverted to proper basic strategy, because the dealer would have peeked for blackjack, making a 10 impossible.
This "assume a ten" strategy results in a house blackjack insurance of 10.
Play Blackjack Practice your blackjack game using my two training tools.
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If the dealer has blackjack, the hand is a push, but the player receives two times the value of the insurance, which is the same as the original bet. If the dealer does not have blackjack, the player wins 1.5 times the value of the original bet but loses the value of the insurance, and still ends up with the value of the original bet. F


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Many blackjack players are still in two minds when it comes to taking ‘Insurance’; some say it’s a good bet while others say it’s a definite no-no.In this article we’re going to explain to you why taking the insurance bet in Blackjack is never a good thing.


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Blackjack Insurance Insurance is a word that most people are familiar with.
You buy insurance just in case you get in a car accident with an uninsured driver, just in case you die and just in case you break your arm after falling off your ladder while hanging Christmas lights.
You pay a premium up front and if or when the inevitable happens, the insurance companies takes care of most of the cost.
With traditional insurance in mind, I think a lot of players confuse what insurance is as a side-bet in blackjack.
Insurance in blackjack is not as good as it appears.
My goal for this article is to explain exactly what blackjack insurance is, and why you should avoid it like the plague.
Insurance is a side-bet that dealers offer to players whenever blackjack insurance have an ace showing.
The idea behind insurance is to protect your bet just in case the dealer has blackjack insurance blackjack.
How Does Insurance in Blackjack Work?
This is before they check for a natural 21.
If you take the insurance you can wager as much as half of your original bet.
Once just click for source insurance bet has been placed the dealer will then check for a blackjack.
However, unless you have a blackjack, blackjack insurance, you will still lose your original bet, breaking even overall.
Another insurance-like situation you may find yourself in is if you have a natural blackjack and the dealer has an ace showing.
The dealer will offer you even money on your bet.
Either way, you walk away with an even money win.
So… Should You Take Insurance or Even Money Side-Bets?
Experts recommend that you pass on insurance bets.
The reason why passing on blackjack insurance in blackjack is recommended is because the dealer will only show up with a blackjack 30.
However, to breakeven on the insurance bet you need a 10-point card to show up 1 out of 3 times 33%.
There are exceptions, of course.
So if the deck is rich with 10-point cards it would make sense to take the insurance bet.
In fact, if you simply pay attention to the cards dealt and notice that there are more 10-point cards then you could pass on insurance, or vice versa.
At the end of the day, blackjack insurance, taking insurance is going to be a -EV bet for the majority of players.
So unless you know how to count cards you should avoid taking the insurance bet in blackjack like the plague.
Unless you like losing, of course.

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Blackjack Insurance | 21 Insurance Guide and When to Buy It?
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Blackjack 21 is a fun and engaging online card game. Learn the rules of blackjack and have fun. Good luck and hope you make it to the leaderboard!


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By Arnold Snyder A Comparison of the Red Blackjack insurance, KO, and Hi-Lo Counts And How Blackjack Click Are Best Compared By Arnold Snyder with computer sims by John Auston By Arnold Snyder By Rich Victor By Arnold Snyder By Arnold Snyder By Arnold Snyder COMPUTER POWER TO THE PEOPLE!!
FROM ET FAN: Blackjack Insurance on Good Hands?
Part I By Marvin L.
Masters From Blackjack Forum Volume VII 4, December 1987 © Blackjack Forum 1987 Should you insure a good blackjack hand?
Blackjack gurus ridicule this question, replying that insurance is a side bet that has nothing to do with the player's hand.
They say if you're counting cards and know that more than one-third of the unseen cards are ten-valued then you insure; if less, you don't.
But what if the tens make up exactly one-third of the unseen cards?
That makes the 2 to 1 insurance payoff exactly right, with blackjack insurance advantage to the casino or blackjack player.
At first glance it seems that taking insurance in this case is wrong.
It's like taking the odds in craps; you increase your bankroll fluctuations without any long run gain.
Let's look at the statement that the insurance bet has nothing blackjack insurance do with the original bet.
This is not true, because correlation is involved, and that is important when making blackjack insurance blackjack insurance decision.
Correlation and the Blackjack Insurance Decision If you have a natural, the correlation is perfectly negative, -1.
Whichever bet wins, the other loses.
If you do not have a natural but the dealer does, then the negative correlation is also perfect: You lose the original bet and collect on the insurance.
But what if neither you nor the dealer has a natural?
Now the correlation between the lost insurance bet and the result of the original bet depends on the quality of your hand.
If you have a 20, the correlation will be highly negative: The insurance bet is lost, and the original bet will probably win.
With a 16, however, the correlation will be positive: The insurance bet loses, and the original bet will probably lose too.
These correlations lead to some interesting conclusions when there are exactly one-third tens in the deck.
If you have a natural, then taking insurance should be automatic.
It costs you nothing in the long run, and reduces bankroll fluctuation.
If you have a 20, it seems to me that the decision should be the same.
You blackjack slot codes probably win the hand if you lose the insurance, so insuring to reduce fluctuation seems like a good idea.
With a 16, however, bankroll fluctuation is increased, not decreased, by the blackjack insurance bet.
I speculate that a player hand of 11, 19, or blackjack insurance should take the blackjack insurance bet, but other blackjack hands should not.
Do any mathematicians out there care to comment?
You can see my response and the response of mathematician Peter Griffin by following the links at the top left of this page.
Return to Return to © 2004-2005 Blackjack Forum Online, All Rights Reserved Taking Insurance on a Good Blackjack Hand is a Good Way to Extend Your Card Counting Career Perfect insurance play has killed off more card counting careers than any other play in the blackjack card counting arsenal.
Insuring good blackjack hands is a low-cost way to improve your lifetime return from card counting.

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The insurance is in case the dealer receives a blackjack, and you put out half of your original bet as the insurance. Assuming the dealer does have a blackjack, you win 2-1 on your insurance wager. To illustrate how this works, let’s say that you make a $10 bet, and the dealer shows an ace.


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Blackjack Insurance: Should You Insure a Good Hand?
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One seemingly good bet to beginning blackjack players is taking insurance.
And blackjack insurance major reason why beginning players are fooled into thinking insurance is a good idea is because dealers ask players beforehand if they want insurance when the opportunity arises.
How Insurance Bets Work The opportunity for insurance wagers arise when the dealer draws a face-up ace; at this point, the dealer will go around the table and ask everybody if they want to take insurance.
The insurance is in case the dealer receives a blackjack, and you put out half of your original bet as the insurance.
Assuming the dealer does have a blackjack, you win 2-1 on your insurance wager.
The dealer turns over his second card, which is a king, thus giving him a blackjack.
And the first thing you have to understand with this concept is exactly what insurance entails.
Most players mistakenly assume that insurance is meant to protect their hand in the event that the dealer has a blackjack.
But the reality is that insurance is merely a wager on the dealer having a natural blackjack.
Perfect Pairs refers to a wager in which the first two cards dealt to a hand will be a pair of the same value; for example, a pair of twos, threes, fours, etc.
Odds are paid depending on whether the two matching cards are also of the same suit, same color, or are of mixed colors.
If the https://us-park.info/blackjack/play-online-blackjack-for-money-usa.html cards do not form a pair, then the Perfect Pairs wager loses.
Essential to take note of, is the fact that blackjack rules vary from one casino to the other and this may complicate learning blackjack.
The player should check for local variations before playing.
However, most correct blackjack rules are so fundamental that they bear no variations in various casinos.
Additionally, most large-scale casinos have similar rules, making blackjack a whole lot less complicated.
With that, let us delve into a detailed account of basic blackjack equipment and rules.
Blackjack Switch is a casino blackjack insurance which was invented by Geoff Hall and was later patented in 2009.
money play blackjack online uk for is a blackjack variant where two hands, rather than one, are dealt to each playing position.
It allows the player to trade cards between two hands, which is otherwise considered a classic cheating maneuver in standard card games.
Super Fun 21, a variation of blackjack, is played using a standard 52 deck card.
One up to eight decks of cards can be used while playing Super Fun 21.
It is one of those fascinating Blackjack variants which offer players quite a wide array of offers once they get dealt a given hands combinations.
These kinds of payouts usually do not require any additional side bet.
The ultimate goal in blackjack is making the best decision on your hand so as to get your 21 or get closer to 21 than the dealer.
To do this, decisions must be made on every card.
The questions here as a player are whether to hit, stand, double down, split, when to take insurance and when to surrender.
Using the chart below, you are one step to becoming a major pro on getting that 21.
For a player to be able to beat the dealer and the house edge, he or she must master the art of counting cards.
It is not a complicated activity but it needs a lot of keenness and accuracy.
Blackjack counting is based on basic strategy since it determines how every card is played.
This is the oldest form of blackjack and is often referred to as traditional blackjack.
The major difference between classic blackjack and other variants is the type of house edge it offers and the fact that you only play with a single deck with the exceptions of a few casinos that offer more options.
The odds involved in blackjack are whether a player will bust or win his bet.
You need to first understand, what hands favor a dealer or the house, a blackjack insurance known as house edge.
This amount is calculated by multiplying the total bets by the amount the casino keeps.
The number of people who play Blackjack especially in America is larger than that of Russian roulette and baccarat combined.
The notion that Blackjack is a difficult game to play has with time been dealt away with.
Two entirely different blackjack variants are known as Pontoon and this can be confusing for players.
One can be played at Internet casinos on a number of software including Realtime Gaming, Playtech, Microgaming, Cryptologic and Galewind Software.
The other, following the initial rise of its popularity being in England, derives it names from being a British version of the common Blackjack card game.
John Ferguson, who is better known by his pen name Stanford Wong, has become legendary throughout the blackjack world for writing some game-changing blackjack books.
This being said, Stanford Wong is definitely a man worth looking at a little closer.
Blackjack card counting is the stuff of legend because skilled players have used this practice to make thousands or even millions of dollars.
The MIT Blackjack Team even made a profitable multi-million dollar business out of card counting!
Blackjack betting systems are quite common since people use them in an effort to win more money with the game.
One driving force behind the popularity of online blackjack is that many sites are generous with bonuses.
In fact, some players are able to beat the house edge when they combine skilled play with blackjack bonuses.
Bill Kaplan and J.
Massar formed the basis for what would become the most famous card counting team in coral blackjack bonus drops — the MIT Blackjack Team.
Interestingly enough, the two Americans met at a Chinese restaurant in Cambridge, Massachusetts of all places.
Massar overheard Kaplan talking about blackjack card counting in the restaurant, and walked over to introduce himself, which is where our story begins.
One of the lesser known skills among blackjack players involves recognizing dealer tells and exploiting them.
The typical blackjack stereotype is an overweight, middle-aged man with poor fashion tastes and a receding hairline.
Erica Shoenberg certainly does not meet this stereotypical view of a blackjack player.
But is Schoenberg really a blackjack legend, or just some model who happens to play a little blackjack on the side?
Rather than pitting players against the house, blackjack tournaments start players off with equal chip amounts, and pay out prizes to the top chip earners.
One of the simpler blackjack betting systems in the game is the Blackjack insurance system.
Although not widely used, those who do employ the Paroli system swear by its potential to earn big profits at the blackjack tables.
Even those who barely know anything about blackjack strategy are familiar with the fact that skilled players stand a much better blackjack insurance to win in the game.
In fact, you can lower the blackjack house edge down to 0.
With this being said, here is a look at some of the things you need to keep in mind with blackjack strategy.
These days, it seems like regular online blackjack is being replaced in popularity by live dealer casino blackjack.
With live dealer blackjack games, you have beautiful women dealing you the cards, and you get to interact with other players too.
In their pursuit of learning perfect blackjack strategy, some players often neglect to cover bankroll management.
But just like with any other casino game, blackjack bankroll management is extremely important, and something that players should definitely study extensively.
Two blackjack legends whose legacies are tied together are Ken Uston and Al Francesco.
The main reason why Uston and Francesco are linked is because they played on the same blackjack team together.
Now most people would consider Uston the more famous out of these two because he went on to write several major blackjack books, and appeared on TV shows too.
The main reason why casinos change rules is to increase their house edge over the player.
The following will show the main rules that are changed, and keep in mind that you may find none or all of these rule changes in effect.
Jackpots and big payouts have a special allure in the casino world because they give players the opportunity to earn big money instantly.
Of course, with the chance to win big payouts also comes a high house edge, which is certainly the case with the blackjack perfect pairs game.
While the advent of online blackjack was certainly impressive, some people longed for an even more realistic blackjack experience.
Enter live dealer casino blackjack, which features streaming video footage of a real person dealing the cards, and the chance to chat with other players.
Live dealer blackjack gives players the opportunity to experience a real casino atmosphere without ever having to leave the house.
Out of all the figures throughout blackjack history, nobody is more famous than Edward O.
In fact, Thorp is credited with inventing the modern card counting system that blackjack pros have used to make huge profits.
Just like the name suggests, blackjack party pits feature a fun and festive atmosphere where music is blaring, beautiful women are dealing the cards, and more women are in the background dancing.
The basic idea behind blackjack party pits is pure enjoyment, which is definitely alluring to the average player.
Single deck blackjack has often been looked at as the holy grail of the game because it offers players the best chance to win profits.
In fact, the house edge is just 0.
However, there are actually some disadvantages to the subject as well, which is covered below along with single deck blackjack advantages.
While some blackjack betting systems are fairly simple to learn, the Labouchere system requires a bit of an explanation.
That being said, here is a closer look at the basics of using the Labouchere and its effectiveness.
While most famous blackjack players accumulate their wealth on the tables and through books, Kerry Packer is an exception to the norm.
Beyond his extravagant wealth and media empire, the Aussie click known for his high stakes gambling ventures into blackjack, poker, baccarat and other games.
Blackjack betting systems are commonly used by players to make the game more exciting while attempting to make more profits.
The most common system is flat betting, which sees blackjack players make the exact same bet over and over again.
Every other type of betting system besides flat betting is either a negative or positive progression.
Some blackjack players become legends blackjack insurance their unparalleled profits at the table, and quirky stories away from the felt.
Others become blackjack legends because of their theories and contributions to the game.
So Hamilton started playing in underground poker games around the Detroit area, and was very good at it.
This prompted him to move to Las Vegas, where a new game caught his attention.
With several difficult choices available in every hand, blackjack is not the easiest game in terms of strategy.
Fortunately, blackjack strategy can be simplified quite easily if you concentrate on a few basic tips to start with.
This being said, here is a quick look at some basic blackjack tips that will help you play well right away.
While most blackjack legends become famous for card counting, Don Johnson has etched his name into blackjack history by using conventional strategy to win millions of dollars.
After all, many blackjack myths revolve around poor strategy moves, and just click for source can cost you a lot of money.
Movies and TV shows often depict blackjack card counting as this glamorous activity that people can quickly learn, and use to win huge sums of money from casinos.
But the reality is that card counting is much harder than what the general public is shown through movies.
The reason why is because the online casino software is a good guide for players who are unsure of the intricacies involved with playing the game.
One seemingly good bet to beginning blackjack players is taking insurance.
And a https://us-park.info/blackjack/blackjack-all-slots.html reason why beginning players are fooled into thinking insurance is a good idea is because dealers ask players beforehand if they want insurance when click here opportunity arises.
Blackjack is definitely one of the best casino games to play because of its low house edge when proper strategy is used.
Along with the Martingale system, the Parlay system is definitely one of the most extreme blackjack strategies that you can use.
The reason why the Parlay is so extreme is because you double bets after every win.
After all, if you can sit at home and make thousands of dollars playing a casino game, it would definitely be worth a try.

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Blackjack Insurance is a hotly contest subject among Blackjack players, with some condemning it as a bad bet, while others swearing by it. We have all the information you need to know about Blackjack Insurance, so that next time you are sitting at a table that offers it, you can make your own mind up!


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Blackjack - Wizard of Odds
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By Arnold Snyder A Comparison of the Red Seven, KO, and Hi-Lo Counts And How Blackjack Systems Are Best Compared By Arnold Snyder with computer sims by John Auston By Arnold Snyder By Blackjack insurance Victor By Arnold Snyder By Arnold Snyder By Arnold Snyder COMPUTER POWER TO THE PEOPLE!!
FROM ET FAN: Blackjack Insurance on Good Hands?
Part I By Marvin L.
Masters From Blackjack Forum Volume VII read article, December 1987 © Blackjack Forum 1987 Should you insure a see more blackjack hand?
Blackjack gurus ridicule this question, replying that insurance is a side bet that has nothing to do with the player's hand.
They say if you're counting cards and know that more than one-third of the unseen cards are ten-valued then you insure; if less, you don't.
But what if the tens make up exactly one-third of the unseen cards?
That makes the 2 to 1 insurance payoff exactly right, with no advantage to the casino or blackjack player.
At first glance it blackjack insurance that taking insurance in this blackjack insurance is wrong.
It's like taking the odds in craps; you increase your bankroll fluctuations without any long run gain.
Let's look at the statement blackjack insurance the insurance bet has nothing to do with the original bet.
This is not true, because correlation is involved, and that is important when making your blackjack insurance decision.
Correlation and the Blackjack Insurance Decision If you have a natural, the correlation is perfectly negative, -1.
Whichever bet wins, the other loses.
If you do not have a natural but the dealer does, then the negative correlation is also perfect: You lose the original bet and collect on the insurance.
But what if neither you nor the dealer has a natural?
Now the correlation between the lost insurance bet and the result of the original bet depends on the quality of your hand.
If you have a 20, the correlation will be highly negative: The insurance bet is lost, and the original bet will probably win.
With a 16, however, the correlation will be positive: The insurance bet blackjack insurance, and the original bet will probably lose too.
These correlations lead to some interesting conclusions when there are exactly one-third tens in the deck.
If you have a natural, then taking insurance should be automatic.
It costs you nothing in the long run, and reduces bankroll fluctuation.
If you have a 20, it seems to me that the decision should be the same.
You will probably win the hand if you lose the insurance, so insuring to reduce fluctuation seems like a good idea.
With a 16, however, bankroll fluctuation is increased, not decreased, by the blackjack insurance bet.
I speculate that a player hand of 11, 19, or 20 should take the blackjack insurance bet, but other blackjack hands should not.
Do any mathematicians out there care to comment?
You can see my response and the response of mathematician Peter Griffin by following the links at the top left of this page.
Return to Return to © 2004-2005 Blackjack Forum Online, All Rights Reserved Taking Insurance on a Good Blackjack Hand is a Good Way to Extend Your Card Counting Career Perfect insurance play has killed off more card counting careers than any other play in the blackjack card counting arsenal.
Insuring good blackjack hands is a low-cost way to improve your lifetime return from card counting.

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You lose $5 on insurance and win $15 on your original bet, $10 net gain. 3) You don't have blackjack but the dealer does. You win $10 on insurance and lose your original $10 bet, a push. 4) Neither you nor the dealer have blackjack and you win the hand. You lose the $5 insurance but win $10 on your original bet, $5 net gain.


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How To Play Blackjack - How Insurance Works

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If your card is an ace, you need to ask the players if they want to purchase insurance. If they do, take each player’s insurance (it should be half of their original bet) and flip over your second card to see whether or not you have a blackjack. If you have a blackjack, collect bets from anyone that didn’t buy insurance.


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What Should You Say to Blackjack Insurance – Yes or No. If you are playing blackjack and the dealer gets an ace, that can’t be a good situation for you. The casinos came up with the so-called insurance bet to help the players protect themselves and control their losses.


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This article is about the gambling game.
For the shedding-type card game sometimes called Black Jack, see.
For other uses, see.
Blackjack A blackjack Alternative names Twenty-One Type Comparing Players 2+, usually 2—7 Skills required Probability Cards 52 to 416 Deck Play Clockwise Random chance High Blackjack is the American variant of a globally popular known aswhose relatives include and.
It is a comparing between usually several players and a dealer, where each player in turn competes against the dealer, but players do not play against each other.
It is played with one or more of 52 cards, and is the most widely played banking game in the world.
Players are each dealt two cards, face up or down depending on the casino and the table at which they sit.
In most other countries, the dealer receives one card face up.
The value of cards two through ten is their pip value 2 through 10.
Face cards Jack, Queen, and King are all worth ten.
Aces can be worth one or eleven.
A hand's value is the sum of the card values.
Players are allowed to draw additional cards to improve their hands.
A hand with an ace valued as 11 is called "soft", meaning that the hand will not bust by taking an additional card; the value of the ace will become one to prevent the hand from exceeding 21.
Otherwise, the hand is "hard".
The dealer blackjack insurance will not be completed if all players have either busted or received blackjacks.
The dealer then reveals the hidden card and must hit until the cards total 17 or more points.
At most tables the dealer also hits on a "soft" 17, i.
Players win by not busting and having a total higher than the dealer, or not busting and having the dealer bust, or getting a blackjack without the dealer getting a blackjack.
If the player and dealer have the same total not counting blackjacksthis is called a "push", and the player typically does not win or lose money on that hand.
Otherwise, the dealer wins.
Blackjack has many rule variations.
Since the 1960s, blackjack has been a high-profile target ofparticularlywho track the profile of cards that have been dealt and adapt their wagers and playing strategies accordingly.
Blackjack has inspired other casino games, including and.
The first written reference is found in a book by the Spanish authormost famous for writing.
Cervantes was aand the main characters of his tale "", from money no blackjack play free, are a couple of cheats working in.
They are proficient at cheating at veintiuna Spanish for twenty-oneand state that the object of the game is to reach 21 points without going over and that the values 1 or 11.
The game is played with the Spanish deck.
This short story was written between 1601 and 1602, implying that ventiuna was played in since the beginning of the 17th century or earlier.
Later references to this game are found in France and Spain.
When twenty-one was introduced in the United States, gambling houses offered bonus payouts to stimulate players' interest.
One such bonus was a ten-to-one payout if the player's hand consisted mobile codes blackjack the and a black either the or the.
This hand was called a "blackjack", and the name stuck to the game even though the ten-to-one bonus was soon withdrawn.
In the modern game, a blackjack refers to any hand of an ace plus a ten or face card regardless of suits or colors.
Roger Baldwin, Wilbert Cantey, Herbert Maisel and James McDermott published a paper titled The Optimum Strategy in Blackjack in the Journal of the American Statistical Association.
This paper would become the foundation of all future sound efforts to beat the game of blackjack.
Between one and eight are together.
At the beginning of each round, up to three players can place their bets in the "betting box" at each position in play.
That is, there could be up to three players at each position at a table in jurisdictions that allow back betting.
The player whose bet is at the front of the betting box is deemed to have control over the position, and the dealer will consult the controlling player for playing decisions regarding the hand; the other players of that box are said to "play behind".
Any player is usually allowed to control or bet in as many boxes as desired at a single table, but it is prohibited for an individual to play on more than one table at a time or to place multiple bets within a single box.
Each box is dealt an initial hand of two cards visible to the people playing on it, and often to any other players.
The dealer's hand receives its first card face up, and in "hole card" games immediately receives its second card face down the hole cardwhich the dealer peeks at but does not reveal unless it makes the dealer's hand a blackjack.
Hole card games are sometimes played on tables with a small mirror or electronic sensor that is used to peek securely at the hole card.
In European casinos, "no hole card" games are prevalent; the dealer's second card is neither drawn nor consulted until the players have all played their hands.
Cards are dealt either from one or two handheld decks, from aor from a.
Single cards are dealt to each wagered-on position clockwise from the dealer's left, followed by a single card to the dealer, followed by an additional card to each of the positions in play.
The players' initial cards may be dealt face up or face down more common in single-deck games.
On their turn, players must choose whether to "hit" take a card"stand" end their turn"double" double wager, take a single card and finish"split" if the two cards have the same value, separate them to make two hands or "surrender" give up a half-bet and retire from the game.
Number cards count as their natural value; the jack, queen, and king also known as "face cards" or "pictures" count as 10; aces are valued as either 1 or 11 according to the player's choice.
If the hand value exceeds 21 points, it busts, and all bets on it are immediately forfeit.
After all boxes have finished playing, the dealer's hand is resolved by drawing cards until the hand busts or achieves a value of 17 or higher a dealer total of 17 including an ace, or "soft 17", must be drawn to in some games and must stand in others.
The dealer never doubles, splits, or surrenders.
If the dealer busts, all remaining player hands win.
If the dealer does not bust, each remaining bet wins if its hand is higher than the dealer's, and loses if it is lower.
If a player receives 21 on the 1st and 2nd card it is considered a "natural" or "blackjack" and the player is paid out immediately unless dealer also has a natural, in which case the hand ties.
In the case of a tied score, known as "push" or "standoff", bets are normally returned without adjustment; however, a blackjack beats any hand that is not a blackjack, even one with a value of 21.
Wins are paid out at 1:1, or equal to the wager, except for player blackjacks which are traditionally paid at 3:2 meaning the player receives three dollars for every two bet or one-and-a-half times the wager.
Many casinos today pay blackjacks at less than 3:2 at some tables; for instance, single-deck blackjack tables often pay 6:5 for a blackjack instead of 3:2.
Blackjack games almost always provide a called insurance, which may be played when dealer's upcard is an ace.
Additional side bets, such as "Dealer Match" which pays when the player's cards match the dealer's up card, are sometimes available.
For the South Park episode, see.
After receiving an initial two cards, the player has up to four standard options: "hit", "stand", "double down", or "split".
Each option has a corresponding hand signal.
Some games give the player a fifth option, "surrender".
Signal: Scrape cards against table in handheld games ; tap the table with finger or wave hand toward body in games dealt face up.
Signal: Slide cards under chips in handheld games ; wave hand horizontally in games dealt face up.
The additional bet is placed in the betting box next to the original bet.
Some games do not permit the player to increase the bet by amounts other than 100%.
Non-controlling players may double their wager or decline to do so, but they are bound by the controlling player's decision to take only one card.
Signal: Place additional chips beside the original bet outside the betting box, and point with one finger.
The dealer separates the two cards and draws an additional card on each, placing one bet with each hand.
The player then plays out the two separate hands in turn; except for a few restrictions, the hands are treated as independent new hands, with the player winning or losing their wager separately for each hand.
Occasionally, in the case of ten-valued cards, some casinos allow splitting only when the cards have the identical ranks; for instance, a hand of 10-10 may be split, but not one of 10-king.
However, usually all 10-value cards are treated the same.
Doubling and further splitting of post-split hands may be restricted, and an ace and ten value card after a split are counted as a non-blackjack 21.
Hitting split aces is usually not allowed.
Non-controlling players may follow the controlling player by putting down an additional bet or decline to do so, instead associating their existing wager with one of the two post-split hands.
In that case they must choose which hand to play behind before the second cards are drawn.
Some casinos do not give non-controlling players this option, and require that the wager of a player not electing to split remains with the first of the two post-split hands.
Signal: Place additional chips next to the original bet outside the betting box; point with two fingers spread into a V formation.
When the player surrenders, the house takes half the player's bet and returns the other half to the player; this terminates the player's interest in the hand.
Signal: The request to surrender is made verbally, there being no standard hand signal.
Hand signals are used to assist the "", a person or located above the table and sometimes concealed behind.
The eye in the sky usually makes a video recording of the table, which helps in resolving disputes and identifying dealer mistakes, and is also used to protect the casino against dealers who steal chips or players who cheat.
The recording can further be used to identify whose activities, while legal, make them undesirable customers.
In the event of a disagreement between a player's hand signals and their words, the hand signal takes precedence.
Each hand may normally "hit" as many times as desired so long as the total is not above hard 20.
On reaching 21 including soft 21the hand is normally required to stand; busting is an irrevocable loss and the players' wagers are immediately forfeited to the house.
After a bust or a stand, play proceeds to the next hand clockwise around the table.
When the last hand has finished being played, the dealer reveals the hole card, and stands or draws further cards according to the rules of the game for dealer drawing.
When the outcome of the dealer's hand is established, any hands with bets remaining on the table are resolved usually in order : bets on losing hands are forfeited, the bet on a push is left on the table, and winners are paid out.
Insurance is a side bet that the dealer has blackjack and is treated independently of the main wager.
It pays 2:1 meaning that the player receives two dollars for every dollar bet and is available when the dealer's exposed card is an ace.
The idea is that the dealer's second card has a fairly high probability nearly one-third to be ten-valued, giving the dealer blackjack and disappointment for the player.
It is attractive although not necessarily wise for the player to insure against the possibility of a dealer blackjack by making a maximum "insurance" bet, in which case the "insurance proceeds" will make up for the concomitant loss on the original bet.
The player may add up to half the value of their original bet to the insurance and these extra chips are placed on a portion of the table usually marked "Insurance pays 2 to 1".
Players with a blackjack may also take insurance, and in taking maximum insurance they commit themselves to winning an amount exactly equal to their main wager, regardless of the dealer's outcome.
Fully insuring a blackjack against blackjack is thus referred to as "taking even money", and paid out immediately, before the dealer's hand is resolved; the players do not need to place more chips for the insurance wager.
Insurance bets are expected to lose money in the long run, because the dealer is likely to have blackjack less than one-third of the time.
However the insurance outcome is strongly with that of the main wager, and if the player's priority is to reducethey might choose to pay for this.
Furthermore, the insurance bet is susceptible to advantage play.
It is advantageous to make an insurance bet whenever the hole card has more than a chance of one in three of being a ten.
Advantage play techniques can sometimes identify such situations.
In a multi-hand, face-up, single deck game, it is possible to establish whether insurance is a good bet simply by observing the other cards on the table after the deal; even if there are just 2 player hands exposed, and neither of their two initial cards is a ten, then 16 in 47 of the remaining cards are tens, which is larger than 1 in 3, so insurance is a profitable bet.
This is an elementary example of the family of advantage play techniques known as card counting.
Bets to insure against blackjack are slightly less likely to be advantageous than insurance bets in general, since the ten in the player's blackjack makes it less likely that the dealer has blackjack too.
The third card is placed at right angles to signify that the player cannot receive any more cards.
The rules of casino blackjack are generally determined by law or regulation, which establishes certain rule variations allowed at the discretion of the casino.
The rules of any particular game are generally posted on or near the table, failing which there is an expectation that casino staff will provide them on request.
Over 100 variations of blackjack have been documented.
As with all casino games, blackjack incorporates a "house edge", a statistical advantage for the casino that is built into the game.
The advantage of the dealer's position in blackjack relative to the player https://us-park.info/blackjack/online-blackjack-casino-bonus.html from the fact that if the player busts, the player loses, regardless of whether the dealer subsequently busts.
Nonetheless, blackjack players using basic strategy will lose less than 1% of their total wagered amount with strictly average blackjack insurance this is very favorable to the player compared to other casino games.
The loss rate of players who deviate from basic strategy through ignorance is generally expected to be greater.
An ace and any combination of you blackjack insurance even money exact />Each blackjack insurance has a rule about whether the dealer must hit or stand on soft 17, which is generally printed on the table surface.
The variation where the dealer must hit soft 17 is abbreviated "H17" in blackjack literature, with "S17" used for the stand-on-soft-17 variation.
Substituting an "H17" rule with an "S17" rule in a game benefits the player, decreasing the house edge by about 0.
This mainly reflects an increased likelihood of player blackjack, since if the players draws a ten on their first card, the subsequent probability of drawing an ace is higher with fewer decks.
It also reflects a decreased likelihood of blackjack-blackjack push in a game with fewer decks.
Casinos generally compensate by tightening other rules in games with fewer decks, in order to preserve the house edge or discourage play altogether.
When offering single deck blackjack games, casinos are more likely to disallow doubling on soft hands or after splitting, to restrict resplitting, require higher minimum bets, and to pay the player less than 3:2 for a winning blackjack.
The following table illustrates the mathematical effect blackjack insurance the house edge of the number of decks, by considering games with various deck counts under the following ruleset: double after split allowed, resplit to four hands allowed, no hitting split aces, no surrender, double on any two cards, original bets only lost on dealer blackjack, dealer hits soft 17, and cut-card used.
The increase in house edge per unit increase in the number of decks is most dramatic when comparing the single deck game to the two-deck game, and becomes progressively smaller as more decks are added.
Number of decks House advantage Single deck 0.
This rule protocol is consequently known as "late" surrender.
The alternative, "early" surrender, gives player the option to surrender before the dealer checks for blackjack, or in a no-hole-card game.
Early surrender is much more favorable to the player than late surrender.
Most medium-strength hands should be surrendered against a dealer Ace if the hole card has not been checked.
For late surrender, however, while it is tempting to opt for surrender on any hand which will probably lose, the correct strategy is to only surrender on the very worst hands, because having even a one in four chance of winning the full bet is better than losing half the bet and pushing the other half, as entailed by surrendering.
Resplitting If the cards of a post-split hand have the same value, most games allow the player to split again, or "resplit".
The player places a further wager and the dealer separates the new pair dealing a further card to each as before.
Some games allow unlimited resplitting, while others may limit it to a certain number of hands, such as four hands for example, "resplit to 4".
Rule variants include allowing resplitting aces or allowing the player to hit split aces.
Games allowing aces to be resplit are not uncommon, but those allowing the player to hit split aces are extremely rare.
Allowing the player to hit hands resulting from split aces reduces the house edge by about 0.
Note that a ten-value card dealt on a split ace or vice versa is a "soft 21" and not a "natural".
No double after split After a split, most games allow doubling down on the new two-card hands.
Disallowing doubling after a split increases the house edge by about 0.
Basic strategy would otherwise call for some doubling down with hard 9 and soft 13—18, and advanced players can identify situations where doubling on soft 19—20 and hard 8, 7 and even 6 is advantageous.
The Reno rule prevents the player from taking advantage of double down in these situations and thereby increases the player's expected loss.
The Reno rule increases the house edge by around 1 in 1,000, and its European version by around 1 in 500.
No hole card and OBO In most non-U.
With no hole card, it is almost never correct basic strategy to double or split against a dealer ten or ace, since a dealer blackjack will result in the loss of the split and double bets; the only exception is with a pair of aces against a dealer 10, where it is still correct to split.
In all other cases, a stand, hit or surrender is called for.
For instance, holding 11 against a dealer 10, the correct strategy is to double in a hole card game where the player knows the dealer's second card is not an acebut to hit in a no hole card game.
The no hole card rule adds approximately 0.
The "original bets only" rule variation appearing in certain no hole read more games states that if the player's hand loses to a dealer blackjack, only the mandatory initial bet "original" is forfeited, and all optional bets, meaning doubles and splits, are pushed.
Altered payout for a winning blackjack In many casinos, a blackjack pays only 6:5 or even 1:1 instead of the usual 3:2.
This is most common at tables with lower.
Although this payoff was originally limited to single-deck games, it has spread to double-deck and shoe games.
Among common rule variations in the U.
Since blackjack occurs in approximately 4.
Video blackjack machines generally pay 1:1 payout for a blackjack.
Dealer wins ties The rule that bets on tied hands are lost rather than pushed is catastrophic to the player.
Though rarely used in standard blackjack, it is sometimes seen in "blackjack-like" games such as in some charity casinos.
For example, if the above game used the hit on soft 17 rule, common in casinos, only 6 cells of the table would need to be changed: double on 11 vs.
A, surrender 15 or 17 vs.
A, double on A,7 vs.
Also when playing basic strategy never take insurance or "even money.
Most blackjack games have a house edge of between 0.
Casino promotions such as complimentary matchplay vouchers or 2:1 blackjack payouts allow the player to acquire an advantage without deviating from basic strategy.
Players may be able to improve on this decision by considering the precise composition of their hand, not just the point total.
For example, players should ordinarily stand when holding 12 against a dealer 4.
However, in a single deck game, players should hit if their 12 consists of a 10 and a 2.
However, even when basic and composition-dependent strategy lead to different actions, the difference in expected reward is small, and it becomes even smaller with more decks.
Using a composition-dependent strategy rather than basic strategy in a single deck game reduces the house edge by 4 in 10,000, which falls to 3 in 100,000 for a six-deck game.
Advantage play is the attempt to win more using skills such as memory, computation, and observation.
These techniques, while generally legal, can be powerful enough to give the player a long-term edge in the game, making them an undesirable customer for the casino and potentially leading to ejection or if they are detected.
Careful accounting of the exposed cards allows a player to make inferences about the cards which remain to be dealt.
For example, the players can increase the starting bet if there are many aces and tens left in the deck, in the hope of hitting a blackjack.
For example, with many tens left in the deck, players might double down in more situations since there is a better chance of getting a good hand.
A card counting system assigns a point score to each rank of card e.
When a card is exposed, a counter adds the score of that card to a running total, the 'count'.
A card counter uses this count to make betting and playing decisions according to a table which they have learned.
The count starts at 0 for a freshly shuffled deck for "balanced" counting systems.
Unbalanced counts are often started at a value which depends on the number of decks used in the game.
Card counting can give the player an edge of up to 2% over the house.
Single-deck games are therefore particularly advantageous to the card counting player.
As a result, casinos are more likely to insist that players do not reveal their cards to one another in single-deck games.
In games with more decks of cards, casinos limit penetration by ending the shoe and reshuffling when one or more decks remain undealt.
Casinos also sometimes use a shuffling machine to reintroduce the exhausted cards every time a deck more info been played.
Card counting is legal and is not considered cheating as long as the counter is not using an external device, : 6-7 but if a casino realizes a player is counting, the casino might inform them that they are no longer welcome to play blackjack.
Sometimes a casino might ban a card counter from the property.
The use of external devices to help counting cards is illegal in all US states that license blackjack card games.
All such techniques are based on the value of the cards to the player and the casino as originally conceived by.
One technique, mainly applicable in multi-deck games, involves tracking groups of cards also known as slugs, clumps, or packs during the play of the shoe, following them through the shuffle, and then playing and betting accordingly when those cards come into play from the new shoe.
Shuffle tracking requires excellent eyesight and powers of visual estimation but is more difficult to detect since the player's actions are largely unrelated to the composition of the cards in the shoe.
Arnold Snyder's articles in magazine brought shuffle tracking to the general public.
His book, The Shuffle Tracker's Cookbook, mathematically analyzed the player edge available from shuffle tracking based on the actual size of the tracked slug.
These methods are generally legal although their status in particular jurisdictions may vary.
A player wishing to click to see more on a side bet is usually required to place a wager on blackjack.
Some games require that the blackjack wager should equal or exceed any side bet wager.
A non-controlling player of a blackjack hand is usually permitted to place a side bet regardless of whether the controlling player does so.
The house edge for side bets is generally far higher than for the blackjack game itself.
Nonetheless side bets can be susceptible to card counting.
A side count, designed specifically for a particular side bet, can improve the player edge.
Only a few side bets, like "Lucky Ladies", offer a sufficient win rate to justify the effort of advantage play.
In team play it is common for team members to be dedicated toward counting only a sidebet using a specialized count.
Players start with an equal numbers of chips; the goal is to finish among the top chip-holders.
Depending on the number of competitors, tournaments may be held over several rounds, with one or two players qualifying from each blackjack insurance after a set number of deals to meet the qualifiers from the other tables in the next round.
Another tournament format,drops the lowest-stacked player from the table at pre-determined points in the tournament.
Good strategy for blackjack tournaments can differ from non-tournament strategy because of the added dimension of choosing the amount to be wagered.
As in poker tournaments, players pay the casino an initial entry fee to participate in a tournament, and re-buys are sometimes permitted.
Some casinos, as well as general betting outlets, provide blackjack among a selection of casino-style games at electronic consoles.
Video blackjack game rules are generally more favorable to the house; e.
Video and online blackjack games generally deal each round from a fresh shoe, rendering card counting ineffective in most situations.
Most of these games have not been adapted for casino play.
Furthermore, the casino game development industry is very active in producing blackjack variants, most of which are ultimately not adopted for widespread use in casinos.
The following are the prominent twenty-one themed comparing card games which have been adapted or invented for use in casinos and have become established in the gambling industry.
An unlicensed version of Spanish 21 played without a hole card is found in Australian casinos under the name presumably borrowed from the British recreational blackjack-like game "Pontoon" which has substantially different rules.
In this form of the game, a player bust does not always result in an automatic loss; depending on the casino, the player can still push if the dealer busts as well, although the dealer typically has to bust with a higher total.
Blackjacks payand players lose on ties; also, they can neither buy insurance nor can they surrender their hand as play online blackjack for dealer's cards are exposed at the outset.
This game is dealt from a Spanish shoe, and blackjacks only pay even money.
For example, if the player is dealt 10—6 and 5—10, then the player can switch two cards to make hands of 10—10 and 6—5.
Natural blackjacks are paid 1:1 instead of the standard 3:2, and a dealer 22 is a push.
If the player has six cards totaling 20, he automatically wins.
Wins are paid 1:1.
An ace can only count as eleven, but two aces count as a blackjack.
It is mostly played in private circles and barracks.
A British variation is called "Pontoon", the name being check this out a corruption of "Vingt-et-un".
Here are a few shows inspired by the game.
On this show, three players answer questions to earn cards in order to win cash and ties are not allowed.
In this game, six grocery products were used, and five of those products' prices were multiplied by various numbers from 2 to 10, but with the one remaining product having the exact price.
In order to win a large prize, the contestant had to achieve a score of 21 which was usually done by picking a product whose price was multiplied by ten and the one that was correctly pricedor beat the house with any score that did not exceed 21.
Seven members were inducted in 2002, with new people inducted every blackjack insurance after.
The Hall of Fame is at the in.
Members includeauthor of the 1960s book Beat the Dealer which proved that the game could be beaten with a combination of basic strategy and ;who popularized the concept of team play;author and editor of the trade journal;author and popularizer of the "Wonging" technique of only playing at a positive count, and several others.
Among these were The Blackjack Hijack Charles Einstein, 1976later produced as the TV movieand Ben Mezrichalso filmed as.
An almost identical theme was shown in the 2004 Canadian film.
In The Hangover, an American comedy, four friends try to count cards to win back enough money to secure the release of their friend from the clutches of a notorious criminal they stole from the previous night while blacked out.
A central part of the plot of is that Raymondan autisticis able to win at blackjack by counting cards.
In the 2014 film we see Jim Bennett playing high stakes Blackjack in order to win large sums of money.
This movie displays different blackjack lingo and risky moves that have high rewards.
A History of Card Games, OUP, Oxford, p.
Scarne's new complete guide to gambling Fully rev.
Barcelona: Flor del Viento Ediciones.
Retrieved May 21, 2017.
Wizard of Odds Consulting, Inc.
Retrieved April 30, 2014.
Fine points of basic strategy in single-deck blackjack.
Retrieved December 8, 2006.
Total Dependent and Composition Dependent Basic Strategy in Blackjack.
Retrieved December 19, 2006.
The theory of blackjack : the compleat card counter's guide to the casino game of 21 6th ed.
By using this site, you agree to the and.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of thea non-profit organization.

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This article is about the gambling game.
For the shedding-type card game sometimes called Black Jack, see.
For other uses, see.
Blackjack A blackjack Alternative names Twenty-One Type Comparing Players 2+, usually 2—7 Skills required Probability Cards 52 to 416 Deck Play Clockwise Random chance High Blackjack is the American variant of a globally popular known aswhose relatives include and.
It is a comparing between usually several players and a dealer, where each player in turn competes against the dealer, but players do not play against each other.
It is played with one or more of 52 cards, and is the most widely played banking game in the world.
Players are each dealt two cards, face up or down depending on the casino and the table at which they sit.
In most other countries, the dealer receives one card face up.
The value of cards two through ten is their pip value 2 through 10.
Face cards Jack, Queen, and King are all worth ten.
Aces can be worth one or eleven.
A hand's value is the sum of the card values.
Players are allowed to draw additional cards to improve their hands.
A hand with an ace valued as 11 to play online blackjack for called "soft", meaning blackjack insurance the hand will not bust by taking an additional card; the value of the ace will become one to prevent the hand blackjack insurance exceeding 21.
Otherwise, the hand is "hard".
The dealer hand will not be completed if blackjack insurance players have either busted or received blackjacks.
The dealer then reveals the hidden card and must hit until the cards total 17 or more points.
At most tables the dealer also hits on a "soft" 17, i.
Players win by not busting and having a total higher than the dealer, or not busting and having the dealer bust, or getting a blackjack without the dealer getting a blackjack.
If the player and dealer have the same total not counting blackjacksthis is called a "push", and the player typically does not win or lose money on that hand.
Otherwise, the dealer wins.
Blackjack has many rule variations.
Since the 1960s, blackjack has been a high-profile target ofparticularlywho track the profile of cards that have been dealt and adapt their wagers and playing strategies accordingly.
Blackjack has inspired other casino games, including and.
The first written reference is found in a book by the Spanish authormost famous for writing.
Cervantes was aand the main characters of his tale "", fromare a couple of cheats working in.
They are here at cheating at veintiuna Spanish for twenty-oneand state that the object of the game is to reach 21 points without going over and that the values 1 or 11.
The game is played with the Spanish deck.
This short story was written between 1601 and 1602, implying that ventiuna was played in since the beginning of the 17th century or earlier.
Later references to this game are found in France and Spain.
When twenty-one was introduced in the United States, gambling houses offered bonus payouts to stimulate players' interest.
One such bonus was a ten-to-one payout if the player's hand consisted of the and a black either the or the.
This hand was called a "blackjack", and the name stuck to the game even though the ten-to-one bonus was soon withdrawn.
In the modern game, a blackjack refers to any hand of an ace plus a ten or face card regardless of suits or colors.
Roger Baldwin, Wilbert Cantey, Herbert Maisel and James McDermott published a read article titled The Optimum Strategy in Blackjack in the Journal of the American Statistical Association.
This paper would become the foundation of all future sound efforts to beat the game of blackjack.
Between one and eight are together.
At the beginning of each round, up to three players can place their bets in the "betting box" at each position in play.
That is, there could be up to three players at each position at a table in jurisdictions that allow back betting.
The player link bet is at the front of the betting box is deemed to have control over the position, and the dealer will consult the controlling player for playing decisions regarding the hand; the other players of that box are said to "play behind".
Any player is usually allowed to control or bet in as many boxes as desired at a single table, but it is prohibited for an individual to play on more than one table at a time or to place multiple bets within a single box.
Each box is dealt an initial hand of two cards visible to the people playing on it, and often to any other players.
The dealer's hand receives its first card face up, and in "hole card" games immediately receives its second card face down the hole cardwhich the dealer peeks at but does not reveal unless it makes the dealer's hand a blackjack.
Hole card games are sometimes played on tables with a small mirror or electronic sensor that is used to peek securely at the hole card.
In European casinos, "no hole card" games are prevalent; the dealer's second card is neither drawn nor consulted until the players have all played their hands.
Cards are dealt either from one or two handheld decks, from aor from a.
Single cards are dealt to each wagered-on position clockwise from the dealer's left, followed by a single card to the dealer, followed by an additional card to each of the positions in play.
The players' initial cards may be dealt face up or face down more common in single-deck games.
On their turn, players must choose whether to "hit" take a card"stand" end their turn"double" double wager, take a single card and finish"split" if the two cards have the same value, separate them to make two hands or "surrender" give up a half-bet and retire from the game.
Number cards count as their natural value; the jack, queen, and king also known as "face cards" or "pictures" count as 10; aces are valued as either 1 or 11 according to the player's choice.
If the hand value exceeds 21 points, it busts, and all bets on it are immediately forfeit.
After all boxes have finished playing, the dealer's hand is resolved by drawing cards until the hand busts or achieves a value of 17 or higher a dealer total of 17 including an ace, or "soft 17", must be drawn to in some games and must stand in others.
The dealer never doubles, splits, or surrenders.
If the dealer busts, all remaining player hands win.
If the dealer does not bust, each remaining bet wins if its hand is higher than the dealer's, and loses if it is lower.
If a player receives 21 on the 1st and 2nd card it is considered a "natural" or "blackjack" and the player is paid out immediately unless dealer also has a natural, in which case the hand ties.
In the case of a tied score, known as "push" or "standoff", bets are normally returned without adjustment; however, a blackjack beats any hand that is not a blackjack, even one with a value of 21.
Wins are paid out at 1:1, or equal to the wager, except for player blackjacks which are traditionally paid at 3:2 meaning the player receives three dollars for every two bet or one-and-a-half times the wager.
Many casinos today pay blackjacks at less than 3:2 at some tables; for instance, single-deck blackjack tables often pay 6:5 for a blackjack instead of 3:2.
Blackjack games almost always provide a called insurance, which may be played when dealer's upcard is an ace.
Additional side bets, such as "Dealer Match" which pays when the player's cards match the dealer's up card, are sometimes available.
For the South Park episode, see.
After receiving an initial two cards, the player has up to four standard options: "hit", "stand", "double down", or "split".
Each option has a corresponding hand signal.
Some games give the player a fifth option, "surrender".
Signal: Scrape cards against table in handheld games ; tap the table with finger or wave hand toward body in games dealt face up.
Signal: Slide cards under chips in handheld games ; wave hand horizontally in games dealt face up.
The additional bet is placed in the betting box next to the original bet.
Some games do not permit the player to increase the bet by amounts other than 100%.
Non-controlling players may double their wager or decline to do so, but they are bound by the controlling player's decision to take only https://us-park.info/blackjack/casino-blackjack-even-money.html card.
Signal: Place additional chips beside the original bet outside the betting box, and point with one finger.
The dealer separates the two cards and draws an additional card on each, placing one bet with each hand.
The player then plays out the two separate play blackjack real money in turn; except for a few restrictions, the hands are treated as independent new hands, with the player winning or losing their wager separately for each hand.
Occasionally, in the case of ten-valued cards, some casinos allow splitting only when the cards have the identical ranks; for instance, a hand of 10-10 may be split, but not one of 10-king.
However, usually all 10-value cards are treated the same.
Doubling and further splitting of post-split hands may be restricted, and an ace and ten value card after a split are counted as a non-blackjack 21.
Hitting split aces is usually not allowed.
Non-controlling players may follow the controlling player by putting down an additional bet or decline to do so, instead associating their existing wager with one of the two post-split hands.
In that case they must choose which hand to play behind before the second cards are drawn.
Some casinos do not give non-controlling players this option, and require that the wager of a player not electing to split remains with the first of the two post-split hands.
Signal: Place additional chips next to the original bet outside the betting box; point with two fingers spread into a V formation.
When the player surrenders, the house takes half the player's bet and returns the other half to the player; this terminates the player's interest in the hand.
Signal: The request to surrender is made verbally, there being no standard hand signal.
Hand signals are used to assist the "", a person or located above the table and sometimes concealed behind.
The eye in the sky usually makes a video recording of the table, which helps in resolving disputes and identifying dealer mistakes, and is also used to protect the casino against dealers who steal chips or players who cheat.
The recording can further be used to identify whose activities, while legal, make them undesirable customers.
In the event of a disagreement between a player's hand signals and their words, the hand signal takes precedence.
Each hand may normally "hit" as many times as desired so long as the total is not above hard 20.
On reaching 21 including soft 21the hand is normally required to stand; busting is an irrevocable loss and the players' wagers are immediately forfeited to the house.
After a bust or a stand, play proceeds to the next hand clockwise around the table.
When the last hand has finished being played, the dealer reveals the hole card, and stands or draws further cards according to the rules of the game for dealer drawing.
When the outcome of the dealer's hand is established, any hands with bets remaining on the table are resolved usually in order : bets on losing hands are forfeited, the bet on a push is left on the table, and winners are paid out.
Insurance is a side bet that the dealer has blackjack and is treated independently of the main wager.
It pays 2:1 meaning that the player receives two dollars for every article source bet and is available when the dealer's exposed card is an ace.
The idea is that the dealer's second card has a fairly high probability nearly one-third to be ten-valued, giving the dealer blackjack and disappointment for the player.
It is attractive although not necessarily wise for the player to insure against the possibility of a dealer blackjack by making a maximum "insurance" bet, in which case the "insurance proceeds" will make up for the concomitant loss on the original bet.
The player may add up to half the value of their original bet to the insurance and these extra chips are placed on a portion of the table usually marked "Insurance pays 2 to 1".
Players with a blackjack may also take insurance, and in taking maximum insurance they commit themselves to winning an amount exactly equal to their main wager, regardless of the dealer's outcome.
Fully insuring a blackjack against blackjack is thus referred to as "taking even money", and paid out immediately, before the dealer's hand is resolved; the players do not need to place more chips for the insurance wager.
Insurance bets are expected to lose money in the long run, because the dealer is likely to have blackjack less than one-third of the time.
However the insurance outcome is strongly with that of the main wager, and if the player's priority is to reducethey might choose to pay for this.
Furthermore, the insurance bet is susceptible to advantage play.
It is advantageous to make an insurance bet whenever the hole card has more than a chance of one in three of being a ten.
Advantage play techniques can sometimes identify such situations.
In a multi-hand, face-up, single deck game, it is possible to establish whether insurance is a good bet simply by observing the other cards on the table after the deal; even if there are just 2 player hands exposed, and neither of their two initial cards is a ten, then 16 in 47 of the remaining cards are tens, which is larger than 1 in 3, so insurance is a profitable bet.
This is an elementary example of the family of advantage play techniques known as card counting.
Bets to insure against blackjack are slightly less likely to be advantageous than insurance bets in general, since the ten in the player's blackjack makes it less likely that the dealer has blackjack too.
The third card is placed at right angles to signify that the player cannot receive any more cards.
The rules of casino blackjack are generally determined by law or regulation, which establishes certain rule variations allowed at the discretion of the casino.
The rules of any particular game are generally posted on or near the table, failing which there is an expectation that casino staff will provide them on request.
Over 100 variations of blackjack have been documented.
As with all casino games, blackjack incorporates a "house edge", a statistical advantage for the casino that is built into the game.
The advantage https://us-park.info/blackjack/how-to-make-money-with-blackjack-online.html the dealer's position in blackjack relative to the player comes from the fact that if the player busts, the player loses, regardless of whether the dealer subsequently busts.
Nonetheless, blackjack players using basic strategy will lose less than 1% of their total wagered amount with strictly average luck; this is very favorable to the player compared to other casino games.
The loss rate of players who deviate from basic strategy through ignorance is generally expected to be greater.
An ace and any combination of 6.
Each game has a rule about whether the dealer must hit or stand on soft 17, which is generally printed on the table surface.
The variation where the dealer must hit soft 17 is abbreviated "H17" in blackjack literature, with "S17" used for the stand-on-soft-17 variation.
Substituting an "H17" rule with an "S17" rule in a game benefits the player, decreasing the house edge by about 0.
This mainly reflects an increased likelihood of player blackjack, since if the players draws a ten on their first card, the subsequent probability of drawing an ace is higher with fewer decks.
It also reflects a decreased likelihood of blackjack-blackjack push in a game with fewer decks.
Casinos generally compensate by tightening other rules in games with fewer decks, in order to preserve the house edge or discourage play altogether.
When offering single deck blackjack games, casinos are more likely to disallow doubling on soft hands or after splitting, to restrict resplitting, require higher minimum bets, and to pay the player less than 3:2 for a winning matchless blackjack bonus codes agree />The following table illustrates the mathematical effect on the house edge of the number cashable blackjack bonus decks, by considering games with various deck counts under the following ruleset: double after split allowed, resplit to four hands allowed, no hitting split aces, no surrender, double on any two cards, original bets only lost on dealer blackjack, dealer hits soft 17, and cut-card used.
The increase in house edge per unit increase in the number of decks is most dramatic when comparing the single deck game to the two-deck game, and becomes progressively smaller as more decks are added.
Number of decks House advantage Single deck 0.
This rule protocol is consequently known as "late" surrender.
The alternative, "early" surrender, gives player the option to surrender before the dealer checks for blackjack, or in a no-hole-card game.
Early surrender is much more favorable to the player than late surrender.
Most medium-strength hands should be surrendered against a dealer Ace if the hole card has not been checked.
For late surrender, however, while it is tempting to opt for surrender on any hand which will probably lose, the correct strategy is to only surrender on the very worst hands, because having even a one in four chance of winning the full bet is better than losing half the bet and pushing the other half, as entailed by surrendering.
Resplitting If the cards of a post-split hand have the same value, most games allow the player to split again, or "resplit".
The player places a further wager and the dealer separates the new pair dealing a further card to each as before.
Some games allow unlimited resplitting, while others may limit it to a certain number of hands, such as four hands for example, "resplit to 4".
Rule variants include allowing resplitting aces or allowing the player to hit split aces.
Games allowing aces to be resplit are not uncommon, but those allowing the player to hit split aces are extremely rare.
Allowing the player to just click for source hands resulting from split aces reduces the house edge by about 0.
Note that a ten-value card dealt on a split ace or vice versa is a "soft 21" and not a "natural".
No double after split After a split, most games allow doubling down on the new two-card hands.
Disallowing doubling after a split increases the house click at this page by about 0.
Basic strategy would otherwise blackjack insurance for some doubling down with hard 9 and soft 13—18, and advanced players can identify situations where doubling on soft 19—20 and hard 8, 7 blackjack insurance even 6 is advantageous.
The Reno rule prevents the player from taking advantage of double down in these situations and thereby increases the player's expected loss.
The Reno rule increases the house edge by around 1 in 1,000, and its European version by around 1 in 500.
No hole card and OBO In most non-U.
With no hole card, it is almost never correct basic strategy to double or split against a dealer ten or ace, since a dealer blackjack will result in the loss of the split and double bets; the only exception is with a pair of aces against a dealer 10, where it is still correct to split.
In all other cases, a stand, hit or surrender is called for.
For instance, holding 11 against a dealer 10, the correct strategy is to double in a hole card game where the player knows the dealer's second card is not an acebut to hit in a no hole card game.
The no hole card rule adds approximately 0.
The "original bets only" rule variation appearing in certain no hole card games states that if the player's hand loses to a dealer blackjack, only the mandatory initial bet "original" is forfeited, and all optional bets, meaning doubles and splits, are pushed.
Altered payout for a winning blackjack In many casinos, a blackjack pays only 6:5 or even 1:1 instead of the usual 3:2.
This is most common at tables with lower.
Although this payoff was originally limited to single-deck games, it has spread to double-deck and shoe games.
Among common rule variations in the U.
Since blackjack occurs in approximately 4.
Video blackjack machines generally pay 1:1 payout for a blackjack.
Dealer wins ties The rule that bets on tied hands are lost rather than pushed is catastrophic to the player.
Though rarely used in standard blackjack, it is sometimes seen in "blackjack-like" games such as in some charity casinos.
For example, if the above game used the hit on soft 17 rule, common in casinos, only 6 cells of the table would need to be changed: double on 11 vs.
A, surrender 15 or 17 vs.
A, double on A,7 vs.
Also when playing basic strategy never take insurance or "even money.
Most blackjack games have a house edge of between 0.
Casino promotions such as complimentary matchplay vouchers or 2:1 blackjack payouts allow the player to acquire an advantage without deviating from basic strategy.
Players may be able to improve on this decision by considering the precise composition of their hand, not just the point total.
For example, players should ordinarily stand when holding 12 against a dealer 4.
However, in a single deck game, players should hit if their 12 consists of a 10 and a 2.
However, even when basic and composition-dependent strategy lead to different actions, the difference in expected reward is small, and it becomes even smaller with more decks.
Using a composition-dependent strategy rather than basic strategy in a single deck game reduces the house edge by 4 in 10,000, which falls to 3 in 100,000 for a six-deck game.
Advantage play is the attempt to win more using skills such as memory, computation, and observation.
These techniques, while generally legal, can be powerful enough to give the player a long-term edge in the game, making them an undesirable customer for the casino and potentially leading to ejection or if they are detected.
Careful accounting of the exposed cards allows a player to make inferences about the cards which remain to be dealt.
For example, the players can increase the starting bet if there are many aces and tens left in the deck, in the hope of hitting a blackjack.
For example, with many tens left in the deck, players might double down in more situations since there is a better chance of getting a good hand.
A card counting system assigns a point score to each rank of card e.
When a card is exposed, a counter adds the score of that card to a running total, the 'count'.
A card counter uses this count to make betting and playing decisions according to a table which they have learned.
The count starts at 0 for a freshly shuffled deck for "balanced" counting systems.
Unbalanced counts are often started at a value which depends on the number of decks used in the game.
Blackjack's house edge is usually between 0.
Card counting can give the player an edge of up to https://us-park.info/blackjack/best-casino-in-europe-for-blackjack-bonus.html over the house.
Single-deck games are therefore particularly advantageous to the card counting player.
As a result, casinos are more likely to insist that players do not reveal their cards to one another in single-deck games.
In games with more decks of cards, casinos limit penetration by ending the shoe and reshuffling when one or more decks remain undealt.
Casinos also sometimes use a shuffling machine to reintroduce the exhausted cards every time a deck has been played.
Card counting is legal and is not considered cheating as long as the counter is not using an external device, : 6-7 but if a casino realizes a player is counting, the casino might inform them that they are no longer welcome to play blackjack.
Sometimes a casino might ban a card counter from the property.
The use of external devices to help counting cards is illegal in all US states that license blackjack card games.
All such techniques are based on the value of the cards to the player and the casino as originally conceived by.
One technique, mainly applicable in multi-deck games, involves tracking groups of cards also known as slugs, clumps, or packs during the play of the shoe, following them through the shuffle, and then playing and betting accordingly when those cards come into play from the new shoe.
Shuffle tracking requires excellent eyesight and powers of visual estimation but is more difficult to detect since the player's actions are largely unrelated to the composition of the cards in the shoe.
Arnold Snyder's articles in magazine brought shuffle tracking to the general public.
His book, The Shuffle Tracker's Cookbook, mathematically analyzed the player edge available from shuffle tracking based on the actual size of the tracked slug.
These methods are generally legal although their status in particular jurisdictions may vary.
A player wishing to wager on a side bet is usually required to place a wager on blackjack.
Some games require that the blackjack wager should equal or blackjack insurance any side bet wager.
A non-controlling player of a blackjack hand is usually permitted to place a side bet regardless of whether the controlling player does so.
The house edge for side bets is generally far higher than for the blackjack game itself.
Nonetheless side bets can be susceptible to card counting.
A side count, designed specifically for a particular side bet, can improve the player edge.
Only a few side bets, like "Lucky Ladies", offer a sufficient win rate to justify the effort of advantage play.
In team play it is common for team members to be dedicated toward counting only a sidebet using a specialized count.
Players start with an equal numbers of chips; the see more is to finish among the top chip-holders.
Depending on the number of competitors, tournaments may be held over several rounds, with one or two players qualifying from each table after a set number of deals to meet the qualifiers from the other tables in the next round.
Another tournament format,drops the lowest-stacked player from the table at pre-determined points in the tournament.
Good strategy for blackjack tournaments can differ from non-tournament strategy because of the added dimension of choosing the amount to be wagered.
As in poker tournaments, players pay the casino an initial entry fee to participate in a tournament, and re-buys are sometimes permitted.
Some casinos, as well as general betting outlets, provide blackjack among a selection of casino-style games at electronic consoles.
Video blackjack game rules are generally more favorable to the house; e.
Video and online blackjack games generally deal each round from a fresh shoe, rendering card counting ineffective in most situations.
Most of these games have not been adapted for casino play.
Furthermore, the casino game development industry is very active in producing blackjack variants, most of which are ultimately not adopted money real machine blackjack online widespread use in casinos.
The following are the prominent twenty-one themed comparing card games which have been adapted or invented for use in casinos and have become established in the gambling industry.
An unlicensed version of Spanish 21 played without a hole card is found in Australian casinos under the name presumably borrowed from the British recreational blackjack-like game "Pontoon" which has substantially different rules.
In this form of the game, a player bust does not always result in an automatic loss; depending on the casino, the player can still push if the dealer busts as well, although the dealer typically has to bust with a higher total.
Blackjacks payand players lose on ties; also, they can neither buy insurance nor can they surrender their hand as both dealer's cards are exposed at the outset.
This game is dealt from a Spanish shoe, and blackjacks only pay even money.
For example, if the player is dealt 10—6 and 5—10, then the player can switch two cards to make hands of 10—10 and 6—5.
Natural blackjacks are paid 1:1 instead of the standard 3:2, and a dealer 22 is a push.
If the player has six cards totaling 20, he automatically wins.
Wins are paid 1:1.
An ace can only count as eleven, but two aces count as a blackjack.
It is mostly played in private circles and barracks.
A British variation is sorry, blackjack with real money amusing "Pontoon", the name being probably a corruption of "Vingt-et-un".
Here are a few shows inspired by the game.
On this show, three players answer questions to earn cards in order to win cash and ties are not allowed.
In this game, six grocery products were used, and five of those products' prices were multiplied by various numbers from 2 to 10, but with the one remaining product having the exact price.
In order to win a large prize, the contestant had to achieve a score of 21 which was usually done by picking a product whose price was multiplied by ten and the one that was correctly pricedor beat the house with any score that did not exceed 21.
Seven members were inducted in 2002, with new people inducted every year after.
The Hall of Fame is at the in.
Members includeauthor of the 1960s book Beat the Dealer which proved that the game could be beaten with a combination of basic strategy and ;who popularized the concept of team play;author and editor of link trade journal;author and popularizer of the "Wonging" technique of only playing at a positive count, and several others.
Among these were The Blackjack Hijack Charles Einstein, 1976later produced as the TV movieand Ben Mezrichalso filmed as.
check this out almost identical theme was shown in the 2004 Canadian film.
In The Hangover, an American comedy, four friends try to count cards to win back enough money to secure the release of their friend from the clutches of a notorious criminal they stole from the previous night while blacked out.
A central part of the plot of is that Raymondan autisticis able to win at blackjack by counting cards.
In the 2014 film we see Jim Bennett playing high stakes Blackjack in order to win large sums of money.
This movie displays different blackjack lingo and risky moves that have high rewards.
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Scarne's new complete guide blackjack insurance gambling Fully rev.
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Retrieved May 21, 2017.
Wizard of Odds Consulting, Inc.
Retrieved April 30, 2014.
Fine points of basic strategy in single-deck blackjack.
Retrieved December 8, 2006.
Total Dependent and Composition Dependent Basic Strategy in Blackjack.
Retrieved December 19, 2006.
The theory of blackjack : the compleat card counter's guide to the casino game of 21 6th ed.
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