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SqlLinq. Dynamic .NET SQL queries. NuGet package. This project started as an experiment that allowed me to write dynamic SQL-like inline queries so I could explore the nature of my collection of MP3 files.


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Find an item in List by LINQ? Ask Question 203. 82. Here I have a simple example to find an item in a list of strings. Normally I use for loop or anonymous delegate.


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The walkthrough demonstrates how to create queries on a list of Student objects, how to run the queries, and how to modify them.
The queries incorporate several features including object initializers, local type inference, and anonymous types.
After completing this walkthrough, you will be ready to move on to click samples and documentation for the specific LINQ provider you are interested in.
LINQ providers include LINQ to SQL, LINQ to DataSet, and LINQ to XML.
In the Name box, type a name for the project, and then click OK.
A project is created.
By default, it contains a reference to System.
Also, the Imported namespaces list on the includes the namespace.
Add an In-Memory Data Source The data source for the queries in this walkthrough is a list of Student objects.
Each Student object contains a first name, a last name, a class year, and an academic rank in the student body.
Important The code needed to define the Student class and create the list used in the walkthrough examples is provided in.
You can copy it from there and paste it into your project.
The new code replaces the code that appeared when you created the project.
Adding the student will introduce you to object initializers.
For more information, see.
Create a Query When executed, the query added in this section produces a list of the students whose academic rank puts them in the tips on picking a winning slot machine ten.
Because the query selects the complete Student tips on picking a winning slot machine each time, the type of the query result is IEnumerable Of Student.
However, the type of the query typically is not specified in query definitions.
Instead, the compiler uses local type inference to determine the type.
For more information, see.
The query's range variable, currentStudent, serves as a reference to each Student instance in the source, students, providing access to the properties of each object in students.
Copy the following code and paste it in.
Run the Query The variable studentQuery contains the definition of the query, not the results of running the query.
A typical mechanism for running a query is a For Each loop.
Each element in the returned code project linq is accessed through the loop iteration variable.
For more information about query execution, see.
For Each studentRecord In studentQuery Console.
The type of studentRecord is inferred to be Student, because studentQuery returns a collection of Student instances.
Note the results in the console window.
Modify the Query It is easier to scan query results if they are in a specified order.
You can sort the returned sequence based on any available field.
The Order By clause will order the results alphabetically from A to Z, https://us-park.info/code/aristocrat-slot-machine-error-codes.html to the last name of each student.
First Ascending You can also specify Descending to order from Z to A.
Note the results in the console window.
The local identifier will hold an intermediate result.
In the following example, name is an identifier that holds a concatenation of the student's first and last names.
A local identifier can be used for convenience, or it can enhance performance by storing the results of an expression that would otherwise be calculated multiple times.
For Each studentRecord In studentQuery2 Console.
Note the results in the console window.
In the following example, the source is a collection of Student objects, but only one member of each object is returned: the first name of students whose last name is Garcia.
First is a string, the data type of the sequence returned by studentQuery3 is IEnumerable Of Stringa sequence of strings.
As in earlier examples, the assignment of a data type for studentQuery3 is left for the compiler to determine by using local type inference.
First ' If you see too many results, comment out the previous ' For Each loops.
For Each studentRecord In studentQuery3 Console.
Note the results in the console window.
You use them in queries when you want to return several fields from the data source rather than complete records currentStudent records in previous examples or single fields First in the preceding section.
Instead of defining a new named type that contains the fields you want to include in the result, you specify the fields in the Select clause and the tips on picking a winning slot machine creates an anonymous type with those fields as its properties.
For more information, see.
The following example creates a query that returns the name and rank of seniors whose academic rank is between 1 and 10, in order of academic rank.
In this example, the type of studentQuery4 must be inferred because the Select clause returns an instance of an anonymous type, and an anonymous type has no usable name.
Rank Ascending Select currentStudent.
Rank ' If you see too many results, comment out the previous ' For Each loops.
For Each studentRecord In studentQuery4 Console.
Note the results in the console window.
Additional Examples Now that you understand the basics, the following is a list of additional examples to illustrate the flexibility and power delphi 7 codes LINQ queries.
Each example is preceded by a brief code project linq of what it does.
Rest the mouse pointer over the query result variable for each query to see the inferred type.
Use a For Each loop code project linq produce the results.
For Each q In q1 Console.
Last Next ' Find all students with a first name beginning with "C".
Year "Senior" And student1.
Rank Select student1 Distinct ' Retrieve the full names of all students, sorted by last name.
Last ' Determine how many students are ranked in notepad source code top 20.
Last Distinct Into Count ' Create a list box to show the last names of students.
Dim lb As New System.
Last Distinct For Each nextName As String In q8 lb.
Add nextName Next ' Find every process that has a lowercase "h", "l", or "d" in its name.
GetProcesses, letter In letters Where proc.
Contains letter Select proc For Each proc In q9 Console.
Liquid error: Can't find the localized string giveDocumentationFeedback for template Conceptual.
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LINQ or Language-Integrated Query is such a tool. LINQ is set of extensions to the .Net Framework 3.5 and its managed languages that set the query as an object. It defines a common syntax and a programming model to query different types of data using a common language.


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Visual Studio Platform Team samples are developed and tested by the Visual Studio Platform Team to ensure that you have a great experience.
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101 LINQ Samples in C#
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Help with C# LINQ Projection.. Browse other questions tagged c# linq.net-4.0 linq-to-entities projection or ask your own question. asked. 7 years, 9 months ago.


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The disadvantage with LINQ is, it is not a precompiled statement where as stored procedures are precompiled. In case of LINQ the queries need to be compile before the execution. So according to this, I can say stored procedures are faster in performance as compared to LINQ.


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Part 1 LINQ to SQL

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Last month I started a blog post series covering LINQ to SQL. LINQ to SQL is a built-in O/RM (object relational mapping) framework that ships in the .NET Framework 3.5 release, and which enables you to easily model relational databases using .NET classes. You can then use LINQ expressions to query.


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A deep dive into the IEnumerable interface, how the C language supports it, how to avoid some of its pitfalls, and an introduction to some basic LINQ concepts.
To understand LINQ well, it is necessary to understand IEnumerable well.
This conceptually simple interface is the work-horse of LINQ.
It can demonstrate some surprisingly complex behavior.
Before dismissing this topic, and moving on to the next one, try to correctly answer these five simple questions.
If successful, you might understand it well enough.
If not, it might be worth taking a few extra moments to read this article.
To check your answers, skip to the end of the article, but no cheating please.
By the end of this article, you will fully understand all of these concepts and begin to understand how they relate to LINQ.
Background This is the first in a series of articles on LINQ.
At its core, IEnumerable is simply a sequence of zero or more items.
This is the interface that is implemented by every collection in the.
NET framework: arrays, lists, dictionaries, hash sets, and more.
Also, a great deal of the.
NET framework https://us-park.info/code/slot-code-veranderen.html this interface to return long or costly sequences of items without requiring a collection, a few quick examples include: DirectoryInfo.
This interface has one, and only one, method: GetEnumerator.
Write letter + " " ; Console.
Write letter + " " ; } Console.
WriteLine ; Almost There Greatness is more than potential.
It is the execution of that potential.
Until you call GetEnumerator, it remains click at this page and full of potential.
You can copy its value between variables, pass it as a parameter, and wrap another IEnumerable around it.
This sequence continues infinitely.
Every item in the sequence, except the first two, is simply the sum of the previous two.
Note: This sequence will start to return nonsense when current + temp is greater than long.
It does not execute a single line of code within the EnumerateFibonacci method.
ToList ; In order to populate the list, every item in the sequence must be evaluated.
In this case, since the sequence is infinite, the operation would never complete.
Eventually, the operation would fail, after all of the memory was exhausted.
While this is an extreme example of the pitfalls of premature materialization, there are many real world examples.
With most, the application simply freezes until all of the items have been evaluated.
It can only begin processing items after the list has been built.
Taming the Infinite Hold infinity in the palm of your hand, and eternity in an hour.
There is no need for a list.
Take 10 ; Here, LINQ simply wraps another IEnumerable, which stops after the tenth item, around mySequence.
Again, not a single line of code in the EnumerateFibonacci method is executed by this assignment.
So, putting it all together, the following makes it easy to tame the infinite: foreach long number in EnumerateFibonacci.
Write number + " " ; Console.
WriteLine ; The beauty of LINQ is that most methods employ the decorator pattern, simply wrapping a new IEnumerable around the sequence.
By adding a series of method calls, you can form a production line or pipeline.
Take 10 ; Again, not a single line of code in EnumerateFibonacci is executed as a result of this assignment.
Under the Hood Everything has beauty, but not everyone sees it.
However, once you understand what the simplest LINQ methods do, it becomes much easier to understand.
At this level, all we really have is a group of extension methods that operate on IEnumerable.
MoveNext ; index++ yield return enumerator.
First, consider the code below.
GetEnumeratorcount ; IEnumerator IEnumerable.
MyTakeEnumerable This inner class simply wraps the original sequence.
It provides a new GetEnumerator method that gets an enumerator, for the original sequence, and wraps it in an instance of MyTakeEnumerator.
MyTakeEnumerator This inner class simply wraps an enumerator from the original sequence and limits it to the requested number of items.
MyEnumerable2 Class This important method here is fairly easy to understand.
We simply create an instance of MyTakeEnumerable to wrap the original sequence.
We simply create an instance of MyTakeEnumerator to wrap the enumerator from the original sequence.
GetEnumeratorcount ; MyTakeEnumerator Class Here, things seem more complicated, but are truly not.
This is simply an implementation of IEnumerator that wraps the enumerator from the original sequence.
Most of the methods do nothing more than call the equivalent methods from the underlying enumerator.
There is only one exception: the Tips on picking a winning slot machine method.
This one we change slightly.
If we have returned less than the requested number items, we simply call the underlying MoveNext method.
Otherwise, we return false.
MoveNext ; Summing It Up To summarize the summary of the summary: people are a problem.
It then returns an instance of this new class.
So where did your code go?
It is essentially moved into the MoveNext method of the IEnumerator.
This is why none of your code is actually executed when you call the original method.
Your actual code now resides in MoveNext.
It is not executed until you call GetEnumerator and then MoveNext.
Standard LINQ Methods The standard LINQ methods are implemented as extension methods to the IEnumerable interface.
They reside in the System.
These methods are divided into three basic flavors: those that return a sequence in the original order, those that return a sequence in a different order, and those that return a singleton value.
Sequence in Original Order Some methods return a new sequence where all or a portion of the original sequence is included, in its original order.
These methods do not require materialization of the sequence to begin returning items.
These methods include: Append, AsEnumerable, Cast, Concat, Empty, Except, OfType, Prepend, Range, Repeat, Select, SelectMany, Skip, SkipWhile, Take, TakeWhile, Where, and Zip.
Sequence in New Order Some methods return a new sequence where all or a portion of the original sequence is included, but in a different order.
While execution is still deferred until you begin consuming the sequence, this can be deceptive.
In order to return the initial item in the sequence, these methods must first evaluate and materialize either a portion or all of the sequence.
These methods include: Distinct, GroupBy, GroupJoin, Intersect, Join, OrderBy, OrderByDescending, Reverse, ThenBy, ThenByDescending, and Union.
Singleton The singleton methods force immediate materialization of at least a portion of here sequence.
These methods include: Aggregate, All, Any, Average, Contains, Count, DefaultIfEmpty, ElementAt, ElementAtOrDefault, First, FirstOrDefault, Last, LastOrDefault, LongCount, Max, Https://us-park.info/code/is-country-code-europe.html, SequenceEqual, Single, SingleOrDefault, Sum, ToArray, ToDictionary, ToList, and ToLookup.
Avoiding Materialization If you stick to standard LINQ methods that return a new altered sequence in the same order as the original sequence, you will avoid materialization.
While this is not always possible, it is possible far more often than some of our colleagues may realize.
This may be true.
However, when you need this information?
If you are simply displaying this information at the end of a report, then it can be trivially calculated during processing without forcing premature materialization.
This is another problem that is solved quite easily.
WriteLine " empty" ; return; } Sometimes, you may encounter an instance where you need to look-ahead in the sequence.
This is familiar to consumers of System.
StreamReader, which provides a Peek method specifically for this purpose.
This is yet another problem that is solved quite easily.
AsPeekableEnumerable { foreach var current color code peekable { Console.
Peek out long next Console.
WriteLine ; } } Bottom line, lack of ingenuity is probably the most common cause of premature materialization.
That said, there are a few times when materialization is necessary and unavoidable.
Simply take some extra time to consider your circumstances, before simply slapping a ToList onto your sequence.
Extension Methods Extension methods were first introduced in C 3.
From a syntactical stand-point, these methods appear to extend the behavior of pre-existing classes or interfaces.
TrimMyStringExtended " Trim It!
The GetEnumerator method is the one and only method required by this interface.
Generally, the disposal is accomplished via a using statement.
Materialization occurs when you force an IEnumerable to provide members in its sequence.
This can delay processing of individual members until after all of them have been evaluated.
It can also result in unnecessary memory consumption.
Finally, in the case of infinite sequences e.
You would need to do what yield does on your behalf.
Wrap the code in an IEnumerator implementation, wrap the IEnumerator in an IEnumerable instance via GetEnumeratorand then return the IEnumerable instance.
The yield keyword sure is friendly.
There is no limit.
An IEnumerable can literally return an infinite number of elements in a sequence.
A practical example of this behavior is provided in the sample code of this article, where an IEnumerable for Remarkable, 7 segment display codes thanks numbers is provided.
While working for Northeastern University, he received co-author credit for six papers published in the Journal of Chemical Physics.
Member 13185116 4-Apr-18 2:00 4-Apr-18 2:00 You created the NullIfEmpty method to avoid materialisation when checking tips on picking a winning slot machine the IEnumerable is empty.
Why not simply use Any?
路 Thank you for your interest in this article.
Under the covers, to determine if the sequence is empty, Any creates an enumerator, performs a MoveNext to test the condition, and then disposes of that enumerator.
For the empty-sequence case, there is no significant difference.
For the non-empty-sequence case, depending on the implementation of the enumerator, the disposal of the original enumerator can cause unintended side-effects, which would not happen with NullIfEmpty.
Regrettably, I'm a bit busy at the moment, so I can't provide a specific example.
I'll try to circle around next week and provide one, if I can find the time.
路 Still haven't had time to find a good example.
However, I can provide a very contrived example that illustrates a difference in behavior.
With LINQ to SQL, using Any followed by a foreach loop, would result in two round-trips to the database server: one to evaluate the Any condition and a second to fetch the results for the loop.
Using NullIfEmpty and then iterating if non-null would only require a single round-trip verified with SQL Server Profiler.
That said, I wouldn't recommend the method for this specific purpose, it is simply an example of a difference in behavior.
I wish I had time to provide a better example, which didn't require me resorting to LINQ to SQL, but having difficulty finding free time lately.
路 Luc Pattyn 29-Mar-18 13:53 29-Mar-18 13:53 Excellent article, thank you very much.
Can't wait to read on.
Thank you for the kind words, I'm happy that you enjoyed it.
I'm working on the second installment now.
Basically, its a quick survey of the standard LINQ methods, with the working title "LINQ Part 2: A shallow swim over the standard LINQ methods" Eventually, the series is headed towards a deep dive into IQueryable, if I can find the time and think of a good way to make the topic more approachable.
Write letter + " " ; } Console.
WriteLine ; Even if I agree that this is the mostly expected thing, the compiler actually no code the actual type of the GetEnumerator return.
For a List, such a type is List.
It might not look important, but the Enumerator type is a struct, so by using the appropriate type, there's no memory allocation neither boxing which causes a memory allocation while the code you presented actually does boxing.
If you replace IEnumerator by List.
Enumerator you will have the real equivalent.
路 Hello Paulo, thank you for reading the article and commenting.
You make an excellent point and correctly point out that the exact type, in the example, is System.
This is indeed more accurate and performant.
However, the use of List as a data type for letters was a contrived example.
By using the phrasing "is performing the equivalent of the following", I hoped to indicate that this was not an exact implementation, but merely one that was illustrative of the more general case.
While https://us-park.info/code/12-days-ellen-snapchat-code.html code I provided is more in-line with the point I was trying to make, I see now that the description could be clearer.
I'm working on a sequel to this article at the moment.
When I do this, I'll also clarify the description of the code you mention.
Thanks again for your attention to detail.
I upvoted your article and I think you gave valuable information in your article.
I honestly don't know why I had to point out that the exact type was not the one you said.
So, I am sorry for that.
So, trying to fix what I said: Your article explains very well the transformations that "yield return" does, but it doesn't show what it really does".
By a simple rule, yes, it makes enumerables much easier to understand.
But it still lack some optimizations.
Truly, thank you for the input.
I still want to make that section a little clearer.
I want to avoid providing any misleading information.
Though, honestly, if the article prevents one unnecessary ToList from getting tacked onto a LINQ chain, I'll have achieved my goal -Eric.
路 Marc Clifton 29-Mar-18 3:32 29-Mar-18 3:32.
And then I saw the author's name!
Ah, worth a read!
Latest Article - Learning to code with python is like learning to swim with those little arm floaties.
It gives you undeserved confidence and will eventually drown you.
Coming from you, that's really high praise.
I've admired and greatly benefited from a number of your articles.
Sadly, I've been a bit of a lurker with regard to commenting I mostly can tf2 closed beta code apologise the article to try and help newer developers avoid simply tacking on a ToList every time they ran into a code academy block with an enumerable.
In my previous job, correcting this common mistake took up a lot of my time.
路 Eric Lynch wrote:and help newer developers avoid simply tacking on a ToList every time they ran into a road block with an enumerable.
I resemble that remark.
It's became a really bad habit that I'm still trying to break!
Latest Article - Learning to code with python code project linq like learning to swim with those little arm floaties.
It gives you undeserved confidence and will eventually drown you.
Isn't that what Curly Joe, of the "Three Stooges", used to say, when he presumably meant to say "I resent that remark"?
I would never take you for a stooge!
路 rrotstein wrote:Was that deliberate?
I would never take you for a stooge!
Yes, that was deliberate.
It was a joke we used to say at a company I worked at many years ago.
Latest Article - Learning to code with python is like learning to swim with those little arm floaties.
It gives you undeserved confidence and will eventually drown you.
They serve as the data for one of the sample sequences I use to demonstrate the LINQ methods.
路 This proves that there is definitely a LINQ between hi-tech and low farce.

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Query Expression Syntax Examples: Projection (LINQ to DataSet) 03/30/2017; 5 minutes to read; Contributors. all; In this article. The examples in this topic demonstrate how to use the Select and SelectMany methods to query a DataSet using the query expression syntax.


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LINQ makes the concept of querying a first-class programming concept in.
The data to be queried can take the form of XML LINQ to XMLdatabases LINQ-enabled ADO.
NET: LINQ to SQL, LINQ to Dataset https://us-park.info/code/spirit-guardian-vanguard-rush-gift-code.html LINQ to Entities and objects LINQ to Objects.
LINQ is also highly extensible and allows you to build custom LINQ enabled data providers e.
I will discuss some of the new language features and improvements that are introduced in C 3.
LastName descending select new { c.
Address tips on picking a winning slot machine Remember that if you want to play around with LINQ or try the examples yourself, you will need to download.
In case you don't want to download Visual Studio, you can check the which runs on top of Visual Studio 2005 there are a few changes in Beta 1 from the way LINQ worked in the May CTP.
Note that this feature has nothing to do with LINQ.
I just thought it would be appropriate to list it with the other new language features.
With this feature, the type of the local variable being declared is inferred from the expression used to initialize the variable.
This is achieved using the var keyword familiar to those who work with scripting languages, but actually it is quite different.
As a result, the var keyword is generating a strongly typed variable reference.
Let's use the same Point class defined earlier, and suppose we want to define an instance of this class.
It makes calls to the Add method to add elements to the collection one at a time.
This language feature enable us to define inline types without having to explicitly define a class declaration for this type.
In other words, imagine we want to use a Point object without defining the class Point it would be anonymous.
So when you use the variable p you will code project linq a list of properties that this anonymous type has.
While anonymous methods provide the power of functional programming languages, the syntax is rather verbose.
Lambda expressions provide a more concise, functional syntax for writing anonymous methods.
So instead of writing helper methods for objects, they become part of that object itself.
As an example, suppose we tips on picking a winning slot machine to check a string to see if it is a valid email address.
IsMatch s ; } } We defined a static class with a static method containing the Extension Method.
Note how the static method above has a this keyword before the first parameter argument of type string.
This tells the compiler that this particular Extension Method should be added to objects of type string.
} It is worth mentioning that LINQ syntax makes use of built-in Extension Methods e.
Linq namespace in Orcas and define standard query operators that can be used against check this out databases, XML and any.
NET objects that implement IEnumerable.
Query expressions provide a language integrated syntax for queries that is similar to relational and 88ff code slot bally error machine query languages such as SQL and XQuery.
It is a shorthand for writing queries using the LINQ query operators i.
Visual Studio provides full intellisense and compile-time checking support for query syntax.
When the C compiler encounters a query syntax expression, it actually transforms it into explicit method invocation code that uses Extension Methods and Lambda Expressions.
StartsWith " B" orderby c.
LastName select new { c.
Address } ; The advantage of using Query Syntax is that the code is easier and more readable.
Also note that a query expression begins with a from clause and ends with either a select or group clause.
Most of the language features introduced in C v3.
However, they do need some framework support and specifically the "green bits".
This is why extension methods, which in fact work at compile time syntactic sugarstill rely on System.
ExtensionAttribute introduced in System.
On the other hand, query expressions syntax is just a mapping to the extension methods implementations that resides in System.
Could be more exhaustive and contain more example.
Furthermore, It feels like you didn't dwell enough on LINQ.
路 petersummers 8-Oct-09 4:54 8-Oct-09 4:54 Code project linq, While trying to get to know some LINQ, I've found a nice sandbox that helped a lot.
It's some kind of online IDE that also supports LINQ and has code project linq samples from 101linq that you can play around with and see what happens, without downloading anything.
I have a table of invoices and I want to select out all the invoices created on a certain date, then based on this, I want to generate a report on the list showing the invoices, grouped by the customer and the list of invoices for that customer.
I can write several queries to achieve the result but was wondering if there https://us-park.info/code/payday-2-clover-mega-mask-code.html a better way to do this.
Thanks 路 Mohammad Dayyan 7-Aug-08 15:24 7-Aug-08 15:24 Hi there Amro.
It's very nice article.
I have a question.
I have a XML file like this : I want to search in it by LINQ.
IgnoreCase select nodes; But there is no data in searchNodes What's wrong with it?
Thanks in advance 路 sundareswaran.
Hope the same will also be available in VC++.
路 Viresh Shah 17-Jul-08 1:25 17-Jul-08 1:25 Hi, Very good article for beginners.
Thanks for your efforts.
Thanks for very interesting article.
I am a bit new to LINQ programming and I have some troubles trying to translate one of my SQL queries into LINQ.
I need to select a list of newest orders for customers.
CustomerID ORDER BY CustomerID, OrderDate Could you help me code project linq rewrite it in LINQ?
Thanks in advance for help.
Keep in mind that I marked this article as "Beginner".
Also there are a number of other articles here on CP that you could use.
CIDev wrote:VS 2008 was codenamed Orcas At the time i wrote the article it was VS Orcas Beta 1, however the basics remain the same.
Keep in mind that I marked this article as "Beginner".
Also there are a number of other articles here on CP that you could use.
I definately think it is a useful article, this was just a small quibble on my part.
Amro Khasawneh wrote:CIDev wrote: VS 2008 was codenamed Orcas At the time i wrote the article it was VS Orcas Beta 1, however the basics remain the same.
Yes, I put in both names because someone will inevitably get confused due to the name change.

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A tips on picking a winning slot machine dive into the IEnumerable interface, how the C language supports it, how to avoid some of its pitfalls, and an introduction to some basic LINQ concepts.
To understand LINQ well, it is necessary to understand IEnumerable well.
This conceptually simple interface is the work-horse of LINQ.
It can demonstrate some surprisingly codes 7e8 behavior.
Before dismissing this topic, and moving on to the next one, try to correctly answer these five simple questions.
If successful, you might understand it well enough.
If not, it might be worth taking are embed code tinypic something few extra moments to read this article.
To check your answers, skip to the end of the article, but no cheating please.
By the end of code project linq article, you will fully understand all of these concepts and begin to understand how they relate to LINQ.
Background This is the first in a series of articles on LINQ.
At its core, IEnumerable is simply a sequence of zero or more items.
This is the interface that is implemented by every collection in the.
NET framework: arrays, lists, dictionaries, hash sets, and more.
Also, a great deal of the.
NET framework employs this interface to return long or costly sequences of items without requiring a collection, a few quick examples include: DirectoryInfo.
This interface has one, and only one, method: GetEnumerator.
Write letter + " " ; Console.
Write apologise, subaru vin code opposite + " " ; } Console.
WriteLine ; Almost There Greatness is more than potential.
It is the execution of that potential.
Until you call GetEnumerator, it remains immaterial and full of potential.
You can copy its value between variables, pass it as a parameter, and wrap another IEnumerable around it.
This sequence continues infinitely.
Every item in the sequence, except the first two, is simply the sum of the previous two.
Note: This sequence will start to return nonsense when current + temp is greater than long.
It does not execute a single line of code within the EnumerateFibonacci method.
ToList ; In order to populate the list, every item in the sequence must be evaluated.
In this case, since the sequence is infinite, the operation would never complete.
Eventually, the operation would fail, after all of the memory was exhausted.
While this is an extreme example of the pitfalls of premature materialization, there are many real world examples.
With most, the application simply freezes until all of the items have been evaluated.
It can only begin processing items after the list has been built.
Taming the Infinite Hold infinity in the palm of your hand, and eternity in an hour.
There is no need for a list.
Take 10 ; Here, LINQ simply wraps another IEnumerable, which stops after the tenth item, around mySequence.
Again, not a single line of code in the EnumerateFibonacci method is executed by this assignment.
So, putting it all together, the following makes it easy to tame the infinite: foreach long number in EnumerateFibonacci.
Write number + " " ; Console.
WriteLine ; The beauty of LINQ is that most methods employ the decorator pattern, simply wrapping a new IEnumerable around the sequence.
By adding a series of method calls, you can form a production line or pipeline.
Take 10 ; Again, not a single line of code in EnumerateFibonacci is executed as a result of this assignment.
Under the Hood Everything has beauty, but not everyone sees it.
However, once you understand what the simplest LINQ methods do, it becomes much easier to understand.
At this level, all we really have is a group of extension methods that tips on picking a winning slot machine on IEnumerable.
MoveNext ; index++ yield return enumerator.
First, consider the code below.
GetEnumeratorcount ; IEnumerator IEnumerable.
MyTakeEnumerable This inner class simply wraps the original sequence.
It provides a new GetEnumerator method that gets an enumerator, for the original sequence, and wraps it in an instance of MyTakeEnumerator.
MyTakeEnumerator This inner class simply wraps an enumerator from the original sequence and limits it to the requested number of items.
MyEnumerable2 Class This important method here is fairly easy to understand.
We simply create an instance of MyTakeEnumerable pinoy code 6/42 wrap the original sequence.
We simply create an instance of MyTakeEnumerator to wrap the enumerator from the original sequence.
GetEnumeratorcount ; MyTakeEnumerator Class Here, things seem more complicated, but are truly not.
This is simply an implementation of IEnumerator that wraps the enumerator from the original sequence.
Most of the methods do nothing more than call the equivalent methods from the underlying enumerator.
There is only one exception: the MoveNext method.
This one we change slightly.
If we have returned less than the requested number items, we simply call the underlying MoveNext method.
Otherwise, we return false.
MoveNext ; Summing It Up To summarize the summary of the summary: people are a code project linq />It then returns an instance of this new class.
So where did your code go?
It is essentially moved into the MoveNext method of the IEnumerator.
This is why none of your code is actually executed when you call the original method.
Your actual code now resides in MoveNext.
It is not executed until you call GetEnumerator and then MoveNext.
Standard LINQ Methods The standard LINQ methods are implemented as extension methods to the IEnumerable interface.
They reside in the System.
These methods are divided into three code project linq flavors: those that return a sequence in the code konami register order, those that return a sequence in a different order, and those that return a singleton value.
Sequence in Original Order Some methods return a new sequence where all or a portion of the original sequence is included, in its original order.
These methods do not require materialization of the sequence to begin returning items.
These methods include: Append, AsEnumerable, Cast, Concat, Empty, Except, OfType, Prepend, Range, Repeat, Select, SelectMany, Skip, SkipWhile, Take, TakeWhile, Where, and Zip.
Sequence in New Order Some methods return a new sequence where all or a portion of the original sequence is included, but in a different order.
While execution is still deferred until you begin consuming the sequence, this can be deceptive.
In order to return the initial item in the sequence, these methods must first evaluate and materialize either a portion or all of the sequence.
These methods include: Distinct, GroupBy, GroupJoin, Intersect, Accept. bsgo redeem codes brilliant, OrderBy, OrderByDescending, Reverse, ThenBy, ThenByDescending, and Union.
Singleton The singleton methods force immediate materialization of at least a portion of the sequence.
These methods include: Aggregate, All, Any, Average, Contains, Count, DefaultIfEmpty, ElementAt, ElementAtOrDefault, First, FirstOrDefault, Last, LastOrDefault, LongCount, Max, Min, SequenceEqual, Single, SingleOrDefault, Sum, ToArray, ToDictionary, ToList, and ToLookup.
Avoiding Materialization If you stick to standard LINQ methods that return a new altered sequence in the same order as the original sequence, you will avoid materialization.
While this is not always possible, it is possible far more often than some of our colleagues may realize.
This may be true.
However, when you need this information?
If you are simply displaying this information at the end of a report, then it can be trivially calculated during processing without forcing premature materialization.
https://us-park.info/code/spirit-guardian-vanguard-rush-gift-code.html is another problem that is solved quite easily.
WriteLine " empty" ; return; } Sometimes, you may encounter an instance where you need to look-ahead in the sequence.
This is familiar to consumers of System.
StreamReader, which provides a Peek method specifically for this purpose.
This is yet another problem that is solved quite easily.
AsPeekableEnumerable { foreach var current in peekable { Console.
Peek out long next Console.
WriteLine ; } } Bottom line, lack of ingenuity is probably the most common cause of premature materialization.
That said, there are a few times when materialization is necessary and unavoidable.
Simply take some extra time to consider your circumstances, before simply slapping a ToList onto your sequence.
Extension Methods Extension methods were first introduced in C 3.
From a syntactical stand-point, these methods appear to extend the behavior of pre-existing classes or interfaces.
TrimMyStringExtended " Trim It!
The GetEnumerator method is the one and only method required by this interface.
Generally, the disposal is accomplished via a using statement.
Materialization occurs when you force an IEnumerable to provide members in its sequence.
This can delay processing of individual members until after all of them have been evaluated.
It can also result in unnecessary memory consumption.
Finally, in the case of infinite sequences e.
You would need to do what yield does on your behalf.
Wrap the code in an IEnumerator implementation, wrap the IEnumerator in an IEnumerable instance via GetEnumeratorand then return the IEnumerable instance.
The yield keyword sure is friendly.
There is no limit.
An IEnumerable can literally return an infinite number of elements in a sequence.
A practical example of this behavior is provided in the sample code of this article, where an IEnumerable for Fibonacci numbers is provided.
While working for Northeastern University, he received co-author credit for six papers published in the Journal of Chemical Physics.
Member 13185116 4-Apr-18 2:00 4-Apr-18 2:00 You created the NullIfEmpty method to avoid materialisation when checking if the IEnumerable is empty.
Why not simply use Any?
路 Thank you for your interest in this article.
Under the covers, to determine if the sequence is empty, Any creates an enumerator, performs a MoveNext to test the condition, and then disposes of that enumerator.
For the empty-sequence case, there is no significant difference.
For the non-empty-sequence case, tips on picking a winning slot machine on the implementation of the enumerator, the disposal of the original enumerator can cause unintended side-effects, which would not happen with NullIfEmpty.
Regrettably, I'm a bit busy at the moment, so I can't provide a specific example.
I'll try to circle around next week and provide one, if I can find the time.
路 Still haven't had time to is country europe a good example.
However, I can provide a very contrived example that illustrates a difference in behavior.
With LINQ to SQL, using Any followed by a foreach loop, would result in two round-trips to the database server: one to evaluate the Any condition and a second to fetch the results for the loop.
Using NullIfEmpty and then iterating if non-null would only require a single round-trip verified with SQL Server Profiler.
That said, I wouldn't recommend the method for this specific purpose, it is simply an example of a difference in behavior.
I wish I had time to provide a better example, which didn't require me resorting to LINQ to SQL, but having difficulty finding free time lately.
路 Luc Pattyn 29-Mar-18 13:53 29-Mar-18 13:53 Excellent article, thank you very much.
Can't wait to read on.
Thank you for the kind words, I'm happy that you enjoyed it.
I'm working on the second installment now.
Basically, its a quick survey of the standard LINQ methods, with the working title "LINQ Part 2: A shallow swim over the standard LINQ methods" Eventually, the series is headed towards a deep dive into IQueryable, if I can find the time and think of a good way to make the topic more approachable.
Write letter + " " ; } Console.
WriteLine ; Even if I agree that this is the mostly expected thing, the compiler actually uses the actual type of the GetEnumerator return.
For a List, such a type is List.
It might not look important, but the Enumerator type is a struct, so by using the appropriate type, there's no memory allocation neither boxing which causes a memory allocation while the code you presented actually does boxing.
If you replace IEnumerator by List.
Enumerator you will have the real equivalent.
路 Hello Paulo, thank you for reading the article and commenting.
You make an excellent point and correctly point out that the exact type, in the example, is System.
This is indeed more accurate and performant.
However, the use of List as a data type for letters was a contrived example.
By using the phrasing "is performing the equivalent of the following", I hoped to indicate that this was not an exact implementation, but merely one that was illustrative of the more general case.
While the code I provided is more in-line with the point I was trying to make, I see now that the description could be clearer.
I'm working on a sequel to this article at the moment.
When I do this, I'll also clarify the description of the code you mention.
Thanks again for your attention to detail.
I upvoted your article and I think you gave valuable information in your article.
I honestly don't know why I had to point out that the exact type was not the one you said.
So, I am sorry for that.
So, trying to fix what I said: Your article explains very well the transformations that "yield return" does, but it doesn't show what it really does".
By a simple rule, yes, it makes enumerables much easier to understand.
But it still lack some optimizations.
Truly, thank you for the input.
I still want to make that section a little clearer.
I want to avoid providing any misleading information.
Too often that's worse than no information at all.
Though, honestly, if the article prevents one unnecessary ToList from getting tacked onto a LINQ chain, I'll have achieved my goal -Eric.
路 Marc Clifton 29-Mar-18 3:32 29-Mar-18 3:32.
And then I saw the author's name!
Ah, worth a read!
Latest Article - Learning to code with python is like learning to swim with those little arm floaties.
It gives you undeserved confidence and will eventually drown you.
Coming from you, that's really high praise.
I've admired and greatly benefited from a number of your articles.
Sadly, I've been a bit of a lurker with regard to commenting I mostly wrote the article to try and help newer developers avoid simply tacking on a ToList every time they ran into a road block with an enumerable.
In my previous job, correcting this common mistake took up a lot of my time.
路 Eric Lynch wrote:and help newer developers avoid simply tacking on a ToList every time they ran into a road block with an enumerable.
I resemble that remark.
It's became a really bad habit that I'm tips on picking a winning slot machine trying to break!
Latest Article - Learning to code with python is like learning to swim with those little arm floaties.
It gives you undeserved confidence and will eventually drown you.
Isn't that what Curly Joe, of the "Three Stooges", used to say, when he presumably meant to say "I resent that remark"?
I would never take you for a stooge!
路 rrotstein wrote:Was that deliberate?
I would never take you for a stooge!
Yes, that was deliberate.
It was a joke we used to say at a company I worked at many years ago.
Latest Article - Learning to code with python is like learning to swim with those little arm floaties.
It gives you undeserved confidence and will eventually drown you.
They serve as the data for one of tips on picking a winning slot machine sample sequences I use to demonstrate the LINQ methods.
路 This proves that there is definitely a LINQ between hi-tech and low farce.

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Again - LINQ to Entities does not recognize the method 'System.String ToString()' method, and this method cannot be translated into a store expression. The mistake from my original post was an inner exception. This is what I get when I try your way. I think the same as with brackets. 鈥 Leron Feb 22 '13 at 11:00


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Jeez, it doesn't seem like that long ago that.
Well for those that don't realize.
LINQ will add new features to both C and VB.
This article will be focussed on LINQ, and is the first in a series of 3 proposed articles.
NET it adds more dlls basically that allows the programmer to query inline data as they probably would be used to doing with standard SQL-type syntax.
So thats basically what LINQ allows us to do.
LINQ also introduces lot of concepts that have really come from other functional programming languages, such as Haskell, LISP.
To run the code supplied with this article you will need to install the May 2006 LINQ CTP which is availablethere is a new March 2007 CTP available, but its about 4GB for the full install as its not just LINQ but the entire next generation of Visual Studio codenamed "Orcas" and quite fiddly, and probably going to change anyway, so the May 2006 LINQ CTP will be OK for the purpose of what this article is trying to demonstrate.
There are a number of interesting sources for LINQ and functional programming concepts.
There is obviously the LINQ site and also some nice web examples, and also some other articles right here at Code Project.
But you never know, this article just might put a new spin on things, and help you to understand LINQ in a different way, as each person has a different writing style, so too, does each person have a different learning style.
Some folk just may like this article.
And to be honest I quite enjoy writing articles, so I'll continue in the hope that someone will like this article's contents.
I do, however, want people to know just so people know that I am not selling myself as a purveyor of new knowledgethat all the information in this article is neither novel or really original, it can all be found easily using the web or by trawling the LINQ documentation.
But sometimes it's nice to let someone else go through the learning for you and to learn from what they learned.
See it as my journey into learning LINQ, which I am sharing with you here.
So that really is a case of trawling the documentation.
But fear not, that is what I will be doing for you good folk in the next two articles.
So stay tuned for those future articles.
It just would not have made sense to write about those two without some sort of words about standard LINQ.
It looks like the figure shown below.
As you can see it comprises a left panel and a right area.
The query source List may not always be the same List, it will depend on the type of query being performed.
However the PropertyGrid will always allow the user to examine the current query source List in the manner just described.
The main data query sources used for most queries will be simple based on List objects, which contain some code project linq simple class objects.
Now }}; So it can be seen that the 1st List simply contains 10 Item objects, and the 2nd List simply contains 10 Order objects.
But what do these Item and Visit web page objects look like?
As I previously said, they are very simply objects, that are really dumb, and simply there to showcase the talents of what can be done with LINQ.
This is pretty much how all the source data code project linq the demo application is done, there may be some exceptions, where simple arrays of values are used instead of List objects, but I'll mention those when we come to them.
Think of the demo app as a mini LINQ playground.
So that's about all I think you'll need to know about the demo app, for the moment, so shall we continue?
LINQ actually does this using methods known as Standard Query Operators.
Sequence static class declares a set of methods which exposes these Standard Query Operators.
The majority of the Standard Query Operators are extension methods that extend IEnumerable.
I think the best way to tackle this subject is to introduce the LINQ Standard Query Operators.
And give you a formal definition and an example of each one.
Any object that implements the interface IEnumerable for some type T is considered a sequence of that type.
So you can see it's quite some beast.
So what I'll attempt to do is give one formal definition and one example for each of the operators.
I'll leave further reading as I am showing one example, there are many possibilities for each operator as an exercise for the reader.
Time for some examples.
Restriction WHERE Operator The Restriction operator filters a sequence based on a predicate.
Well Wikipedia says: " In formal semantics a predicate is an expression of the semantic type of sets.
An equivalent formulation is that they are thought of as indicator functions of sets, i.
In predicate logic, a predicate can take the role as either a property or a relation between question html master codes opinion />The local variable is assigned an anonymous method that returns true if the given customer is located in London.
The delegate referenced by predicate is subsequently used to find all the customers in London.
Where predicate ; So let's consider this simple example.
Basically the easiest way of thinking about what predicates are is to think about them as filters, that will evaluate to True or False, and as such will filter the IEnumerable data tips on picking a winning slot machine that the Expression is being applied to only contain the elements that match the filter predicate.
We needed to do this once, so that Predicates could be explained.
But now that you've all got the hang of that we'll revisit the 1st Standard Query Operator.
Restriction WHERE Operator Revisited Recall the Restriction Where Query Operator was defined as: public static IEnumerable Where this IEnumerable source, Func predicate ; public static IEnumerable Where this IEnumerable source, Func predicate ; The Restriction Query operator can be of either of the forms shown above, where the the first argument of the predicate function represents the element to test.
The second argument, if present, represents the zero-based index of the element within the source sequence.
This looks reminiscent of days of old - VB, Flash, JavaScript - basically any not-strongly typed language.
And those days were bad.
These days we expect and use strongly typed objects.
Even better these days we also have Generics, which bring us even more Type control over software we write.
Yet here is LINQ code, which is after all new stuff, that will probably part of.
Consider this statement: "It is also not required to declare type of query variable, because type inference automatically deduces the type when the var keyword is used.
What do we think of this?
Well it's certainly better that what VB used to do, which was to determine the type at runtime.
What LINQ does it to determine the type at compile time.
So used wisely the var type can actually help developers and decrease coding time.
In the 1st case, we were actually selecting the result type, and it which happens to be of Type Item, so we have to declare the result of the query as IEnumerable as this matches the query result.
This is how to strongly type a query result.
If, however, the query was changed to not return an Item Type, say, a string Type then we would need to change the query result type from IEnumerable to IEnumerable we would have to remember to do this.
Also if we had some complicated nested, joined, aggregate SUM, COUNT type operators as part of the query, it continue reading be quite a complex type that we have to declare as a return type.
What would you guess the query result type be for this: from c in customers join o in orders on c.
CustomerID into co from o in co.
DefaultIfEmpty emptyOrder select new { c.
Total }; or how about this one: from c in customers select new { c.
Orders group o by o.
We all know typing is good and is our friend.
But sometimes it can also be fairly complicated as well.
In the 2nd example above, we simply use var instead of strongly typing the result of the query.
This works, and the correct types are inferred, as they would be even for the most complicated query results.
Also if we change the query, we don't have to change the var, as it will simply infer the new required types automatically.
It is personal preference, but var can save time and frustration.
Just use it wisely and all should be cool.
Projection SELECT Operator The Projection operator performs a projection over a sequence.
The second argument, if present, represents the zero based index of the element within the source sequence.
ToList ; This is an interesting statement.
Then of those that are selected, we generate a new list using the ToList method which only include ItemName and UnitPrice.
There is also SelectMany, which I have not included here.
But after you install LINQ, you can play with this yourself.
Take 2 ; Where this example gets the two most expensive Items.
Skip 2 ; Where this example gets all but the two most expensive Items.
TakeWhile The TakeWhile operator yields elements from a sequence while a test is true and then skips the remainder of the sequence.
I will leave this as an exercise for the reader.
SkipWhile The SkipWhile operator skips elements from a sequence while a test is true and then yields the remainder of the sequence.
I will leave this as an exercise for the reader.
OrderID select new { i.
OrderName }; Where this example gets all Order objects that have the same OrderID value as that of the current Item.
JoinGroup The GroupJoin operator performs a grouped join of two sequences based on matching keys extracted from the elements.
I will leave this as an exercise for the reader.
Concatenation Operator The Concat operator concatenates two sequences.
Equals " Entertainment" select itEnt.
Equals " Food" select it2.
Distinct ; Where this example gets all Item objects which have a Category of "Entertainment" and Concatenates that with the result of all Item objects which have a Category of "Food" and ensures there are no duplicates, by using the Distinct method.
UnitPrice ; Where this example gets all Items objects and simply order them 1st by Category and then by UnitPrice.
Group GroupBy Operator The GroupBy operator groups the elements of a sequence.
The example above does actually work.
This example gets all Item objects and simply groups them by Category.
Then it selects the results into a new List on the fly where the Category is the key of the group result from the previous step, and the Items is set to be the current value of the items that matched the current grouping in the previous step.
A little confusing, but let's have a look at the results that may help a little.
Category : Knowledge Enclopedia Category : Sports Trainers Category : Storage Box of CDs Category : Food Tomatoe ketchup Cranberry Sauce Rice steamer Bunch of grapes Category : Entertainment IPod Rammstein CD War of the worlds DVD It can be seen that we have all the Item objects from the initial List it's just that now they have been grouped.
I grant you it's not as nice as standard SQL syntax, but it does the job.
Distinct ; Where this example gets a unique List of all ItemName and then unions this result, with a unique List of all OrderName.
Intersect The Intersect operator produces the set intersection of two sequences.
Distinct ; Where this example gets a unique List of all Item ItemID values and then Intersect this result, with a unique List of all Order OrderID values.
The result is a List of ints that are common to both the Item and Order List.
Except The Except operator produces the set difference between two sequences.
Distinct ; Where this example gets a unique List of all Item ItemID values and then Intersect this result, with a unique List of all Order OrderID this web page />The result is a List of ints that are common to both the Item and Order List.
Operators The Set operators are made up of seven parts: ToSequence The ToSequence operator returns its argument typed as IEnumerable.
Equals " Entertainment" ; Where this example takes a List of Item and converts it to a Sequence and then grabs all elements whos Category is "Entertainment".
ToArray The ToArray operator creates an array from a sequence.
Equals " Food" ; Where this example takes a List of Item and converts it to a array and then grabs all elements whos Category is "Food".
ToList The ToList operator creates a List from a sequence.
ToDictionary The ToDictionary operator creates a Dictionary from a sequence.
ToLookup The ToLookup operator creates a Lookup from a sequence.
I'll leave this up to the reader to explore.
OfType The OfType operator filters the elements of a sequence based on a type.
OfType ; Where this example creates a new Array of varying objects, and then the OfType is used to grab only those that are of type Double.
Cast The Cast operator casts the elements of a sequence to a given type.
I'll leave this up to the reader to explore.
Equal Operator The EqualAll operator checks whether two sequences are equal.
Distinct ; Where this example gets all Item object ItemID and the same for all the Order object OrderID and sees if the entire sequence is equal.
They are not, as the Item List contains more elements than the Order List, as such there are certain ItemID that dont appear in the Order List.
EqualAll scoreRecords2 ; Where this example creates two new arrays, which have the same elements, and as such when they are compared using the EqualAll they are considered to be equal.
Operators The Set operators are made up of nine parts: First The First operator returns the first element of a sequence.
If no predicate function is specified, the First operator simply returns the first element of the sequence.
FirstOrDefault The FirstOrDefault operator returns the first element of a sequence, or a default value if no element is found.
If no predicate function is specified, the FirstOrDefault operator simply returns the first element of the sequence.
Which in this case doesnt match, so we get null returned instead.
Last The Last operator returns the last element of a sequence.
If no predicate function is specified, the Last operator simply returns the last element of the sequence.
This works the same way as First, I'll leave this as an excercise for the reader.
LastOrDefault The LastOrDefault operator returns the last element of a sequence, or a default value if no element is found.
If no predicate function is specified, the LastOrDefault operator simply returns the last element of the sequence.
This works the same way as FirstOrDefault, I'll leave this as an exercise for the reader.
Single The Single operator returns the single element of a sequence.
If no predicate function is specified, the Single operator simply returns the single element of the sequence.
This works the same way as First, I'll leave this as an excercise for the reader.
SingleOrDefault The SingleOrDefault operator returns the single element of a sequence, or a default value if no element is found.
If no predicate function is specified, the SingleOrDefault operator simply returns the single element of the sequence.
This works the same way as FirstOrDefault, I'll leave this as an excercise for the reader.
ElementAt The ElementAt operator returns the element at a given index in a sequence.
If so, the source sequence's implementation of IList is used to obtain the element at the given index.
Otherwise, the source sequence is enumerated until index elements have been skipped, and the element found at that position in the sequence is returned.
ElementAt 2 ; Where this https://us-park.info/code/telephone-dialling-code-01618.html orders the source List of Item codes 7 segment display UnitPrice and then takes the 3rd Item.
ElementAtOrDefault The ElementAtOrDefault operator returns the element at a given index in a sequence, or a default value if the index is out of range.
If so, the source sequence's implementation of IList is used to obtain the element at the given index.
Otherwise, the source sequence is enumerated until index elements have been skipped, and the element found at that position in the sequence is returned.
ElementAtOrDefault 15 ; Where this example simple attempts to fetch a non existent element from the List of Item, as such null is returned DefaultIfEmpty The DefaultIfEmpty operator supplies a default element for an empty sequence.
This works the same way as FirstOrDefault, I'll leave this as an excercise for the reader.
ToArray ; Where this example creates a new array of squared numbers 1 - 10 by using the takes the static Sequence.
Range method Repeat The Repeat operator generates a sequence by repeating a value a given number of times.
ToArray ; Where this example creates a new array of 5 repeated 5s Sequence.
Empty The Repeat operator generates a sequence by repeating a value a given number of times.
When the object betfair code by Empty is enumerated, it yields nothing.
Im not sure why you would want to do this so I'll leave this as an excercise for the reader.
If no predicate function is specified the Any operator simply wintingo redeem code true if the source sequence contains any elements.
The enumeration of the source sequence is terminated as soon as the result is known.
The enumeration of the source sequence is terminated as soon as the result is known.
Category into g where g.
NOTE: This example is quite different from those supplied with the LINQ CTP, and I could not get those to work, as I think the syntax may have changed since Microsoft wrote the LINQ documentation for example GroupBy did level codes vikings seem to liked, at least not how they described for this specfic query.
The example above does actually work.
Contains The Contains operator checks whether a sequence contains a given element.
If so, the Contains method in sequence's implementation of ICollection is invoked to obtain the result.
Otherwise, the source sequence is enumerated to determine if it contains an element with the given value.
If a matching element is found, the enumeration of the source sequence is terminated at that point.
The elements and the given value are compared using the https://us-park.info/code/12-days-ellen-snapchat-code.html equality comparer, EqualityComparer.
Operators The Set operators are made up of seven parts: Count The Count operator counts the number of elements in a sequence.
If so, the sequence's implementation of ICollection is used to obtain the element count.
Otherwise, the source sequence is enumerated to count the number of visit web page />The Count operator with a predicate enumerates the source sequence and counts the number of elements for which the predicate function returns true.
Equals " Food" select i.
Count ; Where this example simply returns a count of all the Item with a Category.
We must be quite carful with List and Count as there is also a property within the List class and probably many other collections.
So we can't do a query directly on the list when using Count.
What I have done here is a query result, then called the Count after the original query had returned a result.
LongCount The LongCount operator counts the number of elements in a sequence.
If no predicate function is specified the LongCount operator simply counts all elements.
The count of elements is returned as a value of type long.
Works the same as Count but it returns a long.
Sum The Sum operator computes the sum of a sequence of numeric values.
If no selector function is specified, the sum of the elements themselves is computed.
Sum ; Where this example simply sums the UnitPrice of all the Item.
Min The Min operator finds the minimum of a sequence of numeric values.
If no selector function is specified, the minimum of the elements themselves is computed.
The values are compared using their implementation of the IComparable interface, or, if the values do not implement that interface, the non-generic IComparable interface.
Min ; Where this example simply fetches minimum UnitPrice of all the Item.
Max The Max operator finds the maximum of a sequence of numeric values.
If no selector function is specified, the maximum of the elements themselves is computed.
The values are compared using their implementation of the IComparable interface, or, if the values do not implement that interface, the non-generic IComparable interface.
Max works the same way as Min, I'll leave it as an excercise for the reader.
Average The Average operator computes the average of a sequence of here values.
If no selector function is specified, the average of the elements themselves is computed.
Max works the same way as Min, I'll leave it as an excercise for the reader.
Aggregate The Aggregate operator applies a function over a sequence.
It then enumerates the source sequence, repeatedly computing the next accumulator value by invoking the specified function with the current accumulator value as the first argument and the current sequence element as the second argument.
The final accumulator value is returned as the result.
I have to say this one actually defeated me.
I searched and searched for another example, as the LINQ documentation one is pretty dire.
Check it out, this one is direct from LINQ documentation.
This is kind of https://us-park.info/code/ojo-kicker-code.html we are getting with LINQ.
Its very powerful, but some of it is pure crazy syntax.
I mean what the heck is this one above telling someone.
It's not very clear to me.
Even the fabulous doesnt list an Aggregate operator example.
So I guess we'll just have to gloss over this one for the time being.
Fold Folding is nice concept straight out of the functional programming world, it allows us to fold in a new function to elements of a list IEnumerable in our case.
This is very powerful.
Well thats about it for the Standar Query Operators, if youve made it this far well done.
It took me ages to write this, and it's probably taken you ages to read this.
So I'll forgive you if you want to come back later.
But the next bit is all about dynamically created at runtime queries.
Up until now it's all been pre-compiled queries, which is all very well but not very realistic.
In the real world we would want to do dynamic queries wouldn't we.
So far we have looked at static defined at compile time queries which is all very well but not really what we wI'll probably want to do for our real world applications.
It is also possible to create LINQ queries programatically using information the user may have entered or selected from a UI.
QueryExpression Type Mainly Used In DLINQ QueryExpression which according to the only has one property called ExpressionOperator which Gets or sets the operator used in the expression.
If, however, we look in Visual Studio 2005 assuming you have installedwe get a better picture.
It can be seen from this figure that we can literally provide any ExpressionOperator that we like.
This is one part of the secret to creating dynamic LINQ queries at runtime.
CreateQuery expression ; This example is actually a DLINQ query.
But this should be possible in standard LINQ using the Queryable which is new to the March 2007 CTP, though I dont have that CTP installed, and probably wont install it as its 4GB as its the entire "Orcas" build and is bound to change again.
The InteractiveQuery project which is installed as part of the May 2006 CTP is a good place to look for dynamic DLINQ queries.
IQuerablable Interface To do runtime queries over in memory objects LINQ you WI'll need the new March 2007 CTP, which allows the user to do this by the use of the NEW Queryable feature.
And I recommend you read this.
CreateQuery where ; I have since been in contact with Matt Warren author of and he sent me a nice email see I am trying to help you folks out.
So I'll go through what he told me.
Remember that IQuerable is only available in the new March 2007 CTP though.
So let's delve a little deeper.
We have this nice method sitting there, that allows us to do some sort of between dynamic query, on an IQuerable object.
So let's have a look at how we could call this new method.
AsQueryable0, 10 ; So what's going on here?
Well we re-use the results of the 1st query, which yielded a IEnumerable, and then we use the.
AsQueryable to get the result from an IEnumerable into an IQuerable object.
This is all thanks to the new IQuerable interface, that is now part of the March 2007 CTP.
The runtime manages executing IQuerable queries built on top of IEnumerable's.
I'm sure you'll agree we all have to learn how to do this at some stage.
Personally I'm going to let the CTP mature a little more and the install instructions become a bit more clear The current CTP is for the entire "Orcas" project, which is the next version of Visual Studio, so it's huge.
But that's only my opinion, if you just cant wait for dynamic queries and a sneaky peak at "Orcas" then download the Well that's click to see more about it.
As I said this article has probably not shown you much that you could not have learned from going to however, all information must come from somewhere.
And perhaps some folks would not have known about or even LINQ unless they actually read this article, in which case I've probably done them a favour.
Also this article does show actual working code, where as I found that some of the LINQ samples in the LINQ documentation, just did not work, or were so complicated that they would scare some folk.
I've really tried to keep the examples in this article as simple as possible.
I Promise I'll try and make them cover new material.
I would just like to ask, if you liked the article please vote for it, as it allows me to know if the article was at the right level or not.
Also, if you think that the next two proposed articles should include this much material or less material.
Let me know, after all I want to write articles that actually help people out.
I know this one had a lot of stuff in it.
Anyway let me know your thoughts.
I have quite enjoyed constructing this article, and have been quite refreshed at just how easy LINQ is to actually use well most of it, some of the Group and Aggregate operators are just plain nasty.
I also had quite a nostalgic feeling as it reminded me of doing Haskell programming, which I would thoroughly recommend everyone avoid, as its simply crazy.
But if you like lambdas, then you should get jiggy with curries and lazy evaluation and all that functional type of stuff.
Its quite different actually.
Your great didactic article has released my inner brake!
While reading one can feel that you like to write.
Thank you very much for this Bruno Yes, nice article!
WriteLine sSubItem ; 路 Philip Cotan 25-Aug-13 2:21 25-Aug-13 2:21 So far, this is the best article to learn LINQ.
Especially if you're a beginner.
路 Joezer BH 29-Apr-13 22:03 29-Apr-13 22:03 Great language, simple and clean explanations!
Cheers Sacha, it shows that you really care for the readers.
So the very obvious first thing I did was Google and it listed your article in the first page.
And when I saw the author name, I knew this is the start I was looking for.
You have some unedited copy paste for example in Exact and Average operator explanation.
路 Spatlabor 7-Oct-11 23:17 7-Oct-11 23:17 Perhaps my sight is decreasing but isn't the sample code for this web page Except identical to the Intersect one?
Perhaps a copy-paste error.
Of course it was the example Slot codes error aristocrat machine needed Excellent article.
路 No your eyes are fine, typo, unfortunately I cant modify this code, as the article was done before LINQ was released, so it would not compile any more.
But yes just imagine that the text is correct if you could.
I'm my best friend too.
We share the same views, and hardly ever argue My Blog : 路 Lord Voldemoo 29-Sep-11 6:25 29-Sep-11 6:25 I keep coming back to this series for the great examples.
Javaman 3-Aug-11 11:21 3-Aug-11 11:21 This saved me some time today in passing dynamic Entity Framework filters.
Grid items source was IEnumerable Clicking on radio button set the predicate to query that particular ORM field from EF.
Subsequent Search Button trigger used the predicate set up by Radio Button click.
Avoided a ton of if.
I'm my best friend too.
We share the same views, and hardly ever argue My Blog : 路 CiKamaNdeela 15-Aug-10 2:46 15-Aug-10 2:46 It has explained clearly the purpose and usage of Linq with very simple but powerful examples.
I actually have no question to ask.
If i get stuck or lost i just have read again the concerned part of the article.
I can't believe this is seldom mentioned in the tutorials found on the net.
A cool technique for home-made small applications, sure, but for real-world software it's simply a disaster.
Programmers love it, database administrators fear it!
路 Maybe you will be able to sleep a little easier knowing that these LINQ queries are not being run against a database.
You could run a stored procedure to create your.
Net objects then you run a Linq query against that locally persisted data.
Linq is basically a more elegant version of the for loop.
路 Marek Grzenkowicz 8-Mar-10 2:44 8-Mar-10 2:44 The lambda expressions link is broken.
The article has been moved to.

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LINQ is pretty cool, and I have been looking into it as of late, so I thought I would write an article about what I have learned in the LINQ/DLINQ/XLINQ areas, in the hopes that it may just help some of you good folk. This article will be focussed on LINQ, and is the first in a series of 3 proposed articles.


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Jeez, it doesn't seem like that long ago that.
Well for those that don't realize.
LINQ will add new features to both C and VB.
This article will be focussed on LINQ, and is the first in a series of 3 proposed articles.
NET it adds more dlls basically that allows the programmer to query inline data as they probably would be used to doing with standard SQL-type syntax.
So thats basically what LINQ allows us to do.
LINQ also introduces lot of concepts that have really come from other functional programming languages, such as Haskell, LISP.
To run the code supplied with this article you will need to install the May 2006 LINQ CTP which is availablethere is a new March 2007 CTP available, but its about 4GB for the full install as its not just LINQ but the entire next generation of Visual Studio codenamed "Orcas" and quite fiddly, and probably going to change anyway, so the May 2006 LINQ CTP will be OK for the purpose of what this article is trying to demonstrate.
There are a number of interesting sources for LINQ and functional programming concepts.
There is obviously the LINQ site and also some nice web examples, and also some other articles right here at Code Project.
But you never know, this article just might put a new spin on things, and help you to understand LINQ in a different way, as each person has a different writing style, so too, does each person have a different learning style.
Some folk just may like this article.
And to be honest I quite enjoy writing articles, so I'll continue in the hope that someone will like this article's contents.
I do, however, want people to know just so people know that I am not selling myself as a purveyor of new knowledgethat all the information in this article is neither novel or really original, it can all be found easily using the web or by trawling the LINQ documentation.
But sometimes it's nice to let someone else go through the learning for you and to learn from what they learned.
See it as my journey into learning LINQ, which I am sharing with you here.
So that really is a case of trawling the documentation.
But fear not, that is what I will be doing for you good folk in the next two articles.
So stay tips on picking a winning slot machine for those future articles.
It just would not have made sense to write about those two without some sort of words about standard LINQ.
It looks like the figure shown below.
As you can see it comprises a left panel and a right area.
The query source List may not always be the same List, it will depend on the type of query being performed.
However the PropertyGrid will always allow the user to examine the current query source List in the manner just described.
The main data query sources used for most queries will be simple based on List objects, which contain some really simple class objects.
Now }}; So it can be seen that the 1st List simply contains 10 Item objects, and the 2nd List simply contains 10 Order objects.
But what do these Item and Order objects look like?
As I box codes said, they are very simply objects, that are really dumb, and simply there to showcase the talents of what can be done with LINQ.
This is pretty much how all the source data for the demo application is done, there may be some exceptions, where simple arrays of values are used instead of List objects, but I'll mention those when we come to them.
Think of the demo app as a mini LINQ playground.
So that's about all I think you'll need to know about the demo app, for the moment, so shall we continue?
LINQ actually does this using methods known as Read more Query Operators.
Sequence static class declares a set of methods which exposes these Standard Query Operators.
The majority of the Standard Query Operators are extension methods that extend IEnumerable.
I think the best way to tackle this subject is to introduce the LINQ Standard Query Operators.
And give you a formal definition and an example of each one.
Any object that implements the interface IEnumerable for some type T is considered a sequence of that type.
So you can see it's quite some beast.
So what I'll attempt to do is give one formal definition and one example for each of the operators.
I'll leave further reading as I am showing one example, there are many possibilities for each operator as an exercise for the reader.
Time for some examples.
Restriction WHERE Operator The Restriction operator filters a sequence based on a predicate.
Well Wikipedia says: " In formal semantics a predicate is an expression of the semantic type of sets.
An equivalent formulation is that they are thought of as indicator functions of sets, i.
In predicate logic, a predicate can take the role as either a property or a relation between entities.
The local variable is assigned an anonymous method that returns true if the given customer is located in London.
The delegate referenced by predicate is subsequently used to find all the customers in London.
Where predicate ; So let's consider this simple example.
Basically the easiest way of thinking about what predicates are is to think about them as filters, that will evaluate to True or False, and as such will filter the IEnumerable data source that the Expression is being applied to only contain the elements that match the filter predicate.
We needed to do this once, so that Predicates could be explained.
But now that you've all got the hang of that we'll revisit the 1st Standard Query Operator.
Restriction WHERE Operator Revisited Recall the Restriction Where Query Operator was defined as: public static IEnumerable Where this IEnumerable source, Func predicate ; public static IEnumerable Where this IEnumerable source, Func predicate ; The Restriction Query operator can be of either of the forms shown above, where the the first argument of the predicate function represents the element to test.
The second argument, if present, represents the zero-based index of the element within the source sequence.
This looks reminiscent of days of old - VB, Flash, JavaScript - basically any not-strongly typed language.
And those days were bad.
These days we expect and use strongly typed objects.
Even better these days we also have Generics, which bring us even more Type control over software we write.
Yet here is LINQ code, which is after all new stuff, that will probably part of.
Consider this statement: "It is also not required to declare type of query variable, because type inference automatically deduces the type when the var keyword is used.
What do we think of this?
Well it's certainly better that what VB used to do, which was to determine the type at runtime.
What LINQ does it to determine the type at compile time.
So used wisely the var type can actually help developers and decrease coding time.
In the 1st case, we were actually selecting the result type, and it which happens to be of Type Item, so we have to declare the result of the query as IEnumerable as this matches the query result.
This is how to strongly type a query result.
If, however, the query was changed to not return an Item Type, say, a string Type then we would need to change the query result type from IEnumerable to IEnumerable we would have to remember to do this.
Also if we had some complicated nested, joined, aggregate SUM, COUNT type operators as part of the query, it might be quite a complex type that we have to declare as a return type.
What would you guess the query result type be for this: from c in customers join o in orders on c.
CustomerID into co from o in co.
DefaultIfEmpty emptyOrder select new { c.
Total }; or how about this one: from c in customers select new { c.
Orders group o by o.
We all know typing is good and is our friend.
But sometimes it can also be fairly complicated as well.
In the 2nd example above, we simply use var instead of strongly typing the result of the query.
This works, and the correct types are inferred, as they would be even for the most complicated query results.
Also if we change the query, we don't have to change the var, as it will simply infer the new required types automatically.
It is personal preference, but var can save time and frustration.
Just use it wisely and all should be cool.
Projection SELECT Operator The Projection operator performs a projection over a sequence.
The second argument, if present, represents the zero based index of learn more here element within the source sequence.
ToList ; This is an interesting statement.
Then of those that are selected, we generate a new list using the ToList method which only include ItemName and UnitPrice.
There is also SelectMany, which I have not included here.
But after you install LINQ, you can play with this yourself.
Take 2 ; Where this example gets the two most expensive Items.
Skip 2 ; Where this example gets all but the two most expensive Items.
TakeWhile The TakeWhile operator yields elements from a sequence while a test is true and then skips the remainder of the sequence.
I will leave this as an exercise for the reader.
SkipWhile The SkipWhile operator skips elements from a sequence while a test is true and then yields the remainder of the sequence.
I will leave this as an exercise for the reader.
OrderID select new { i.
OrderName }; Where this example gets all Order objects that have the same OrderID value as that of the current Item.
JoinGroup The GroupJoin operator performs a grouped join of two sequences based on matching keys extracted from the elements.
I will leave this as an exercise for the reader.
Concatenation Operator The Concat operator concatenates two sequences.
Equals " Entertainment" select itEnt.
Equals " Food" select it2.
Distinct ; Where this example gets all Item objects which have a Category of "Entertainment" and Concatenates lv country codes with the result of all Item objects which have a Category of "Food" and ensures there are no duplicates, by using the Distinct method.
UnitPrice ; Where this example gets all Items objects and simply order them 1st by Category and then by UnitPrice.
Group GroupBy Operator The GroupBy operator groups the elements of a sequence.
The example above does actually work.
This example gets all Item objects and simply groups them by Category.
Then it selects the results into a new List on the fly where the Category is the key of the group result from the previous step, and learn more here Items is set to be the current value of the items that matched the current grouping in the previous step.
A little confusing, but let's have a look at the results that may help a little.
Category : Knowledge Enclopedia Category : Sports Trainers Category : Storage Box of CDs Category : Food Tomatoe ketchup Cranberry Sauce Rice steamer Bunch of grapes Category : Entertainment IPod Rammstein CD War of the worlds DVD It can be seen that we have all the Item objects from the initial List it's just that now they have been grouped.
I grant you it's not as nice as standard SQL syntax, but it does the job.
Distinct ; Where this example gets a unique List of all ItemName and then unions this result, with a unique List of all OrderName.
Intersect The Intersect operator produces the set intersection of two sequences.
Distinct ; Where this example gets a unique List of all Item ItemID values and then Intersect this result, with a unique List of all Order OrderID values.
The result is a List of ints that are common to both the Item and Order Tips on picking a winning slot machine />Except The Except operator produces the set difference between two sequences.
Distinct ; Where this example gets a unique List of all Item ItemID values and then Intersect this result, with a unique List of all Order OrderID values.
The result is a List of ints that are common to both the Item and Order List.
Operators The Set operators are made up of seven parts: ToSequence The ToSequence operator returns its argument typed as IEnumerable.
Equals " Entertainment" ; Where this example takes a List of Item and converts it to a Sequence and then grabs all elements whos Category is "Entertainment".
ToArray The ToArray operator creates an array from a sequence.
Equals " Food" ; Where this example takes a List of Item and converts it to a array and then grabs all elements whos Category is "Food".
ToList The ToList operator creates a List from a sequence.
ToDictionary The ToDictionary operator creates a Dictionary from a sequence.
ToLookup The ToLookup operator creates a Lookup from a sequence.
I'll leave this up to the reader to explore.
OfType The OfType operator filters the elements of a sequence based on a type.
OfType ; Where this example creates a new Array of varying objects, and then the OfType is used to grab only those that are of type Double.
Cast The Cast operator casts the elements of a sequence to a given type.
I'll leave this up to the reader to explore.
Equal Operator The EqualAll operator checks whether two sequences are equal.
Distinct ; Where this example gets all Item object ItemID and the same for all the Order object OrderID and sees if the entire sequence is equal.
They are not, as the Item List contains more elements than the Order List, as such there are certain ItemID that dont appear in the Order List.
EqualAll scoreRecords2 ; Where this example creates two new arrays, which have the same elements, and as such when they are compared using the EqualAll they are considered to be equal.
Operators The Set operators are made up of nine parts: First The First operator returns the first element of a sequence.
If no predicate function is specified, the First operator simply returns the first element of the sequence.
FirstOrDefault The FirstOrDefault operator returns the first element of a sequence, or a default value if no element is found.
If no predicate function is specified, the FirstOrDefault operator simply returns the first element of the sequence.
Which in this case doesnt match, so we get null returned instead.
Last The Last operator returns the last tips on picking a winning slot machine of a sequence.
If no predicate function is specified, the Last operator simply returns the last element of the sequence.
This works the same way as First, I'll leave this as an excercise for the reader.
LastOrDefault The LastOrDefault operator returns the last element of a sequence, or a default value if no element is found.
If no predicate function is specified, the LastOrDefault operator simply returns the last element of the sequence.
This works the same way as FirstOrDefault, I'll leave this as an exercise for the reader.
Single The Single operator returns the single element of a sequence.
If no predicate function is specified, the Single operator simply returns the single element of the sequence.
This works the same way as First, I'll leave this as an excercise for the reader.
SingleOrDefault The SingleOrDefault operator returns the single element of a sequence, or a default value if no element is found.
If no predicate function is specified, the SingleOrDefault operator simply returns the single element of the sequence.
This works the same way as FirstOrDefault, I'll leave this as an excercise for the reader.
ElementAt The ElementAt operator returns the element at a given index in a sequence.
If so, the source sequence's implementation of IList is used to obtain the element at the given index.
Otherwise, the source sequence is enumerated until index elements have been no code igloo, and the element found at that position in the sequence is returned.
ElementAt 2 ; Where this example orders the source List of Item by UnitPrice and then takes the 3rd Item.
ElementAtOrDefault The ElementAtOrDefault operator returns the element at a given index in a sequence, tips on picking a winning slot machine a default value if the index is out of range.
If so, the source sequence's implementation of IList is used to obtain the element at the given index.
Otherwise, the source sequence is enumerated until index elements have been skipped, and the element found at that position in the sequence is returned.
ElementAtOrDefault 15 ; Where this example simple attempts to fetch a non existent element from the List of Item, as such null is returned DefaultIfEmpty The DefaultIfEmpty operator supplies a default element for an empty sequence.
This works the same way as FirstOrDefault, I'll leave impossible. code 37 slot can as an excercise for the reader.
ToArray ; Where this example creates a new array of squared numbers 1 - 10 by using the takes the static Sequence.
Range method Repeat The Repeat operator generates a sequence by repeating a value a given number of times.
ToArray ; Where this example creates a new array of 5 repeated 5s Sequence.
Empty The Repeat operator generates a sequence by repeating a value a given number of times.
When the object returned by Empty is enumerated, it yields nothing.
Im not sure why you would want to do this so I'll leave this as an excercise for the reader.
If no predicate function is specified the Any operator simply returns true if the source sequence contains any elements.
The enumeration of the source sequence is terminated as soon as the result is known.
The enumeration of the source sequence is terminated as soon as the result is known.
Category into g where g.
NOTE: This example is quite different from those supplied with the LINQ CTP, and I could not get those to work, as I think the syntax may have changed since Microsoft wrote the LINQ documentation for example GroupBy did not seem to liked, at least not how they described for this specfic query.
The example above does actually work.
Contains The Contains operator checks whether a sequence contains a given element.
If so, the Contains method in sequence's implementation of ICollection is invoked to obtain the result.
Otherwise, the source sequence is enumerated to determine if it contains an element with the given value.
If a matching element is found, the enumeration of the source sequence is terminated at that point.
The elements and the given value referrer code appkarma compared using the default equality comparer, EqualityComparer.
Operators The Set operators are made up of seven parts: Count The Count operator counts the number of elements in a sequence.
If so, the sequence's implementation of ICollection is used to obtain the element count.
Otherwise, the source sequence is enumerated to count the number of elements.
The Count operator with a predicate enumerates the source sequence and counts the number of elements for which the predicate function returns true.
Equals " Food" tips on picking a winning slot machine i.
Count ; Where this example simply returns a count of all the Item with a Category.
We must be quite carful with List and Count as there is also a property within the List class and probably many other collections.
So we can't do a query directly on the list when using Count.
What I have done here is a juicy codes result, then called the Count after the original query had returned a result.
LongCount The LongCount operator counts the number of elements in a sequence.
If no predicate function is specified the LongCount operator simply counts all elements.
The count of elements is returned as a value of type long.
Works the same as Count but it returns a long.
Sum The Sum operator computes the sum of a sequence of numeric values.
If no selector function is specified, the sum of the elements themselves is computed.
Sum ; Where this example simply sums the UnitPrice of all the Item.
Min The Min operator finds the minimum of a sequence of numeric values.
If no selector function is specified, the minimum of the elements themselves is computed.
The values are compared using their implementation of the IComparable interface, or, if the values do not implement that interface, the non-generic IComparable interface.
Min ; Where this example simply fetches minimum UnitPrice of all the Item.
Max The Max operator finds the maximum of a sequence of numeric values.
If no selector function is specified, the maximum of the elements themselves is computed.
The values are compared using their implementation of the IComparable interface, or, if the values do not implement that interface, apologise, europe code 3 something non-generic IComparable interface.
Max works the same way as Min, I'll leave it as an excercise for the reader.
Average The Average operator computes the average of a sequence of numeric values.
If no selector function is specified, the average of the elements themselves is computed.
Max works the same way as Min, I'll leave it as an excercise for the reader.
Aggregate The Aggregate operator applies a function over a sequence.
It then enumerates the source sequence, repeatedly computing the next accumulator value by invoking the specified function with the current accumulator value as the first argument and the current sequence element as the second argument.
The final accumulator value is returned as the result.
I have to say this one https://us-park.info/code/code-promotionnel-betclic-inscription.html defeated me.
I searched and searched for another example, as the LINQ documentation one is pretty dire.
Check it out, this one is direct from LINQ documentation.
This is kind of what we are getting with LINQ.
Its very powerful, but some tips on picking a winning slot machine it is pure crazy syntax.
I mean what the heck is this one above telling someone.
It's not very clear to me.
Even the fabulous doesnt list an Aggregate operator example.
So I guess we'll just have to gloss over this one for the time being.
Fold Folding is nice concept straight out of the functional code blogger post world, it allows us to fold in a new function to elements of a list IEnumerable in our case.
This is very powerful.
Well thats about it for the Standar Query Operators, if youve made it this far well done.
It took me ages to write this, and it's probably taken you ages to read this.
So I'll forgive you if you want to come back later.
But the next bit is all about dynamically created at runtime queries.
Up until now it's all been pre-compiled queries, which is all very well but not very realistic.
In the real world we would want to do dynamic queries wouldn't we.
So far we have looked at static defined at compile time queries which is all very well but not really what we wI'll probably want to do for our real world applications.
It is also possible to create LINQ queries programatically using information the user may have entered or selected from a UI.
QueryExpression Type Mainly Used In DLINQ QueryExpression which according to the only has code project linq property called ExpressionOperator which Gets or sets the operator used in the expression.
If, however, we look in Visual Studio 2005 assuming you have installedwe get a better picture.
It can be seen from this figure that we can literally provide any ExpressionOperator that we like.
This is one part of the secret to creating dynamic LINQ queries at runtime.
CreateQuery expression ; This example is actually a DLINQ query.
But this should be possible in standard LINQ using the Queryable which is new to the March 2007 CTP, though I dont have that CTP installed, and probably wont install it as its 4GB as its the entire "Orcas" build and is bound to change again.
The InteractiveQuery project which is installed as part of the May 2006 CTP is a good place to look for dynamic DLINQ queries.
IQuerablable Interface To do runtime queries over in memory objects LINQ you WI'll need the new March 2007 CTP, which allows the user to do this by the use of the NEW Queryable feature.
And I check this out you read this.
CreateQuery where ; I have since been in tips on picking a winning slot machine with Matt Warren author of and he sent me a nice email see I am trying to help you folks out.
So I'll go through what he told me.
Remember that IQuerable is only available in the new March 2007 CTP though.
So let's delve a little deeper.
We have this nice method sitting there, that allows us to do some sort of between dynamic query, on an Codes 7e8 object.
So let's have a look at how we could call this new method.
AsQueryable0, 10 ; So what's going on here?
Well we re-use the results of the 1st query, which yielded a IEnumerable, and then we use the.
AsQueryable to get the result from an IEnumerable into an IQuerable object.
This is all thanks to the new IQuerable interface, that is now part of the March 2007 CTP.
The runtime manages executing IQuerable queries built on top of IEnumerable's.
I'm sure you'll agree we all have to learn how to do this at some stage.
Personally I'm going to let the CTP mature a little more and the install instructions become a bit more clear The current CTP is for the entire "Orcas" project, which is the next version of Visual Studio, so it's huge.
But that's only my opinion, if you just cant wait for dynamic queries and a sneaky peak at "Orcas" then download the Well that's actually about it.
As I said this article has probably not shown you much that you could not have learned from going to however, all information must come from somewhere.
And 01618 telephone dialling code some folks would not have known about or even LINQ unless they actually read this article, in which case I've probably done them a favour.
Also this article does show actual working code, where as I found that some of the LINQ samples in the LINQ documentation, just did not work, or were so complicated that they would scare some folk.
I've really tried to keep the examples in this article as simple as possible.
I Promise I'll try and make them cover new material.
I would just like to ask, if you liked the article please vote for it, as it allows me to know if the article was at the right level or not.
Also, if you think that the next two proposed articles should include this much material or less material.
Let me know, after all I want to write articles that actually help people out.
I know this one had a lot of stuff in it.
Anyway let me know your thoughts.
I have quite enjoyed constructing getflv code article, and have been quite refreshed at just how easy LINQ is to actually use well most of it, some of the Group and Aggregate operators are just plain nasty.
I also had quite a nostalgic feeling as it reminded me of doing Haskell programming, which I would thoroughly recommend everyone avoid, as its simply crazy.
But if you like lambdas, then you should get jiggy with curries and lazy evaluation and all that functional type of stuff.
Its quite different actually.
Your great didactic article has released my inner brake!
While reading one can feel that you like to write.
Thank you very much for this Bruno Yes, nice article!
WriteLine sSubItem ; 路 Philip Cotan 25-Aug-13 2:21 25-Aug-13 2:21 So far, this is the best article to learn LINQ.
Especially if you're a beginner.
路 Joezer BH 29-Apr-13 22:03 29-Apr-13 22:03 Great language, simple and clean explanations!
Cheers Basic slot machine source code, it shows that you really care for the readers.
So the very obvious first thing I did was Google read more it listed your article in the first page.
And when I saw the author name, I knew this is the start I was looking for.
You have some unedited copy paste for example in Exact and Average operator explanation.
路 Spatlabor 7-Oct-11 23:17 7-Oct-11 23:17 Perhaps my sight is decreasing but isn't the sample code for the Except identical to the Intersect one?
Perhaps a copy-paste error.
Of course it was the example I needed Excellent article.
路 No your eyes are fine, typo, unfortunately I cant modify this code, as the article was done before LINQ was released, so it would not compile any more.
But yes just imagine that the text is correct if you could.
I'm my best friend too.
We share the same views, here hardly ever argue My Blog : 路 Lord Voldemoo 29-Sep-11 6:25 29-Sep-11 6:25 I keep coming back to this series for the great examples.
Javaman 3-Aug-11 11:21 3-Aug-11 11:21 This saved me some time today in passing dynamic Entity Framework filters.
Design was: A row of radio buttons with column names of grid.
Grid items source was IEnumerable Clicking on radio button set the predicate to query that particular ORM field from EF.
Subsequent Search Button trigger used the predicate set up by Radio Button click.
Avoided a ton of if.
I'm my best friend too.
We share the same views, and hardly ever argue My Blog : 路 CiKamaNdeela 15-Aug-10 2:46 15-Aug-10 2:46 It has explained clearly the purpose and usage of Linq with very simple but powerful examples.
I actually have no question to ask.
If i get stuck or lost i just have read again the concerned part of the article.
I can't believe this is seldom mentioned in the tutorials found on the net.
A cool technique continue reading home-made small applications, sure, but for real-world software it's simply a disaster.
Programmers love it, database administrators fear it!
路 Maybe you will be able to sleep a little easier knowing that these LINQ queries are not being run against a database.
You could run a stored procedure to create your.
Net objects then you run a Linq query against that locally persisted data.
Linq is basically a more elegant version of the for loop.
路 Marek Grzenkowicz 8-Mar-10 2:44 8-Mar-10 2:44 The lambda expressions link is broken.
The article has been moved to.

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This sample shows different uses of Projection Operators LINQ - Projection Operators in C# for Visual Studio 2010 This site uses cookies for analytics, personalized content and ads.


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By using projection, you can construct a new type that is built from each object.
You can project a property and perform a mathematical function on it.
You can also project the original object without changing it.
The standard query operator methods that perform projection are listed in the following section.
Methods Method Name Description C Query Expression Syntax More Information Select Projects values that are based on a transform function.
Use multiple from clauses Query Expression Syntax Examples Select Click here following example uses the select clause to project the first letter from each string in a list of strings.
Substring 0, 1 ; foreach string s in query Console.
Split ' ' select word; foreach string s in query Console.
Select produces one result value for every source value.
The overall result is therefore a collection that has the same number of elements as the source collection.
In contrast, SelectMany produces a single overall result that contains concatenated tips on picking a winning slot machine from each source value.
The transform tips on picking a winning slot machine that is passed as an argument to SelectMany must return an enumerable sequence of values for each source value.
These enumerable sequences are then concatenated by SelectMany to create one large sequence.
The following two illustrations show the conceptual difference between the actions of these two methods.
In each case, assume that the selector transform function selects the array of flowers from each source value.
This illustration depicts how Select returns a collection that has the same number of elements as the source collection.
This illustration depicts how SelectMany concatenates the intermediate sequence of arrays into one final result value that contains each value from each intermediate array.
Code Example The following example compares the behavior of Select and SelectMany.
The code creates a "bouquet" go here flowers by taking the first two items from each list of flower names in the source collection.
In this example, the "single value" that the transform function uses is itself a tips on picking a winning slot machine of values.
This requires the extra foreach loop in order to enumerate each string in each sub-sequence.
WriteLine item ; Console.
Liquid error: Can't find the localized string giveDocumentationFeedback for template Conceptual.
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Sum (LINQ) Enumerable.Sum is extension method from System.Linq namespace. It returns sum of numeric values in collection. Sum for Numeric Types. Gets sum of values from list of integer numbers.


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Works fine for Linq to Objects, havent tried for IQueryables. 鈥 nawfal Jan 27 '16 at 11:15 No what I meant was, it's used frequently sure however in a particular project if you only need to do this in say a single controller (aka once) then there's an extension method is not required.


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c# linq to sql tutorial